The 1967 Cadillac Eldorado is a milestone Cadillac by any standard. Rakish, sophisticated, and surprisingly sporty, it was the division’s first front-wheel-drive car and its first serious entry in the burgeoning personal luxury genre. This week, we explore the story of the first FWD Eldorado.
Author’s note: An earlier version of this article first appeared in August 2009. We’ve completely rewritten and expanded it, clearing up some errors and misconceptions and adding new information and new images.
Cadillac’s first Eldorado was born in the early fifties, but the model’s conceptual roots go back to the mid-thirties, when GM styling chief Harley Earl convinced a wary Cadillac management to approve a stylish new image leader, the 1938 Sixty Special. The work of a young designer named Bill Mitchell, the Sixty Special was mechanically unremarkable, but justified its higher price with sophisticated styling. It was a commercial success, selling around 21,000 units between 1938 and 1942, and was highly influential. Unlike the flagship V-16, which disappeared after 1940, the Sixty Special became a permanent part of the Cadillac line, although later editions were less distinctive.
Around 1951, Cadillac conceived a new image leader: the Eldorado convertible, which debuted in January 1953. Like the original Sixty Special, it was a showcase for advanced styling features, including cut-down fenders and Cadillac’s first wraparound windshield. It was expensive to build, however, and with a lofty $7,750 price tag — more than twice as much as a Series 62 sedan — it was not a volume seller. Cadillac built only 532 for 1953. Subsequent Eldorados were more like other Cadillacs, allowing a lower price and more comfortable profit margins. Sales remained modest, reaching a peak of 6,050 units in 1956, when a hardtop coupe called Eldorado Seville was added to the line.
Roughly a year after the debut of the first Eldorado, Harley Earl began pushing for an even more upscale four-door hardtop model, the Eldorado Brougham. As originally conceived, the Brougham was to be both a styling leader and an engineering flagship, with fuel injection, disc brakes, a rear transaxle, and independent rear suspension. Cadillac’s engineering staff was leery of its likely costs, but the corporation eventually approved it as a rival for Ford’s forthcoming Continental Mark II.
Many of the Brougham’s engineering features were subsequently dropped for cost reasons, but the production car debuted in early 1957, sporting air suspension, a full list of power accessories, and a towering $13,074 list price, enough for three Series 62 hardtops. Unfortunately, the market for such high-end cars had turned out to be much softer than expected. Cadillac sold only 400 Eldorado Broughams in 1957 and an additional 304 in the 1958 model year, and it’s likely that the division lost a lot of money on them.
Nonetheless, Cadillac introduced a second-generation Brougham in January 1959, more conservatively styled than before, but still priced at over $13,000. To reduce labor costs, it was now built by Pinin Farina in Turin, although the car was styled in Detroit.
With the U.S. economy still in the throes of recession, the new Brougham was not heavily promoted and Cadillac’s contract with Farina apparently called for only 100 cars per year. Total production for 1959 was actually 99, followed by 101 of the mildly restyled 1960 version. We don’t know if Cadillac made money on them or not, but given their unique glass, trim, and exterior sheet metal, as well as the cost of transatlantic shipping, it seems unlikely.
By mid-1959, the Brougham’s days were numbered. Ford had already given up on the Mark II, rolling the Continental Division back into Lincoln. The Eldorado Brougham was dropped after the 1960 model year, although retired GM designer Pierre Ollier says its styling had a strong influence on Cadillac’s 1961 line. The Eldorado Seville hardtop was dropped at the same time, leaving the convertible, which survived through the 1966 model year.
THE XP-715 AND XP-727
While the demand for ultra-luxury flagships was limited, the arrival of the four-seat Ford Thunderbird in January 1958 revealed a robust market in a somewhat lower price bracket. The new Thunderbird was a curious hybrid — not really a sports car, not quite a luxury car — but it offered flashy styling and reasonable practicality for a high but attainable price. It was an immediate hit and caught GM off-guard.
Around the middle of 1959, Bill Mitchell, who had recently succeeded Harley Earl as GM’s VP of styling, assigned designer Ned Nickles to develop a new Thunderbird-style personal luxury car. Nickles’ initial concept — intended for Cadillac, but developed in a separate Special Projects studio — was a sleek, six-passenger convertible whose styling evoked the 1939-1940 LaSalle, Cadillac’s long-departed companion make. At Mitchell’s suggestion, it subsequently became a hardtop coupe with a sharp-edged roofline inspired by a custom-bodied Rolls-Royce Mitchell had spotted on a recent trip to London. The full-size clay model of Nickles’ design, the XP-715, was badged “LaSalle II.”
Around the same time, the Cadillac styling studio, then led by Charles M. Jordan, was exploring its own ideas for a sporty personal car, conceived by Cadillac assistant general sales manager Tom La Rue and assistant chief engineer Dan Adams as an eventual replacement for the Eldorado Brougham. By October 1959, this project had yielded a full-size model, dubbed XP-727. We’ve been unable to find any photos of the first XP-727, but it was probably at least broadly similar to the XP-715 — both were two-door hardtops, with five-passenger capacity and long-hood/short-deck proportions in the mold of prewar Classics. The most dramatic difference between the two was the possibility that the XP-727 might have front-wheel drive.
GM’s corporate Engineering Staff had been toying with front-wheel drive since at least 1954 and had at least one Cadillac-engined test mule by 1958. In late 1959, a small group of Cadillac engineers, including Lester Milliken, who had developed the Brougham’s air suspension, joined their counterparts from the corporate staff to conduct winter testing of the FWD prototypes. Details about those test mules are scarce, but it appears they had transverse engines, like Oldsmobile’s first FWD prototype, which was completed a few months later. (We don’t know if they also had a similar dual chain drive system, although it seems likely.)
Although the FWD prototypes performed well on snow and ice, the XP-727 project apparently stalled by early 1960. According to Chuck Jordan, Cadillac proposed the personal car idea to the corporate Engineering Policy Committee, which said no. If Cadillac really lost as much money on the earlier Eldorado Broughams as some observers have suggested, that’s not surprising; we assume the business case for a Brougham replacement was not strong, particularly factoring in the additional expense of front-wheel drive.
Beyond that, Cadillac general manager Harold Warner appears to have been at best ambivalent about the idea of adding another line. Shortly afterward, he rejected Mitchell’s XP-715 proposal, another personal car idea originally intended as a revival of the LaSalle marque. That project had the support of GM president Jack Gordon (who Mitchell said had been getting an earful from dealers demanding to know why GM had no answer to the Thunderbird), but Warner passed, seeing no need for such a car.
As author Michael Lamm has observed, Cadillac was then pushing the limits of its production capacity (which by late 1962 would prompt Warner to initiate a major expansion program), but Warner also had good reason to be satisfied with the status quo. Demand for new Cadillacs was very strong and Cadillac’s badge cachet was at its peak, so adding a cheaper companion make — particularly a more stylish one — would have been a questionable business decision, Thunderbird or no. There was still an argument to be made that Cadillac needed a personal car, but at that point, the division didn’t need a new LaSalle.
THE BIRTH OF THE BUICK RIVIERA AND OLDSMOBILE XP-784
Although Cadillac had rejected the XP-715, the design was not yet dead. Since Buick, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac were all interested, GM held an internal competition in the fall of 1960 to determine who would build the car. The eventual winner, as we have previously seen, was Buick, and the LaSalle II became the 1963 Buick Riviera.
Well before the Riviera even went on sale, Oldsmobile was asking the corporation for a Riviera-style specialty car of its own. Around the spring of 1962, Car and Truck Group VP Ed Cole finally relented, authorizing the development of a new personal Olds for the 1966 model year. As we discussed in our Toronado history, it would be based on a rendering by Oldsmobile stylist Dave North, created as an exercise earlier that year. That fall, Advanced Styling Studio 3 developed North’s concept into a full-size clay, the XP-784. It would later become the 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado.
Dave Holls, Cadillac’s assistant chief stylist during this period, says the development of the Riviera and Toronado galvanized Bill Mitchell’s determination to build a sporty Cadillac personal car. If both Buick and Oldsmobile were to have stylish specialty cars, Mitchell argued, it hardly made sense for Cadillac to be left out.
The Cadillac studio had revived the XP-727 project in early 1961, resulting in a new full-size clay, the XP-727-2. We were unable to obtain pictures of that model for this article, but photos of it in other sources show a subtly V-shaped windshield, skirted rear wheels, peculiar headlamp ‘eyebrows,’ and broad semi-fastback sail panels. The XP-727-2 was apparently another dead end and was abandoned after August 1961.
As the Oldsmobile XP-784 took shape, the Cadillac studio developed another clay, the XP-727-3. It once again sported a V windshield, adding rear ‘suicide’ doors and another curious front-end treatment with exposed high beams and concealed low beams. By November 1962, that model had reached a highly finished state, but it was rejected as insufficiently modern-looking.
THE E-BODY CADILLAC
Full-size models of Oldsmobile’s XP-784 design were completed by February 1963 and received management approval in April. By that time, there was a strong possibility that it would have front-wheel drive, with which Oldsmobile had been experimenting since 1957.
The extent of Cadillac’s interest in front-wheel drive up to this point is unclear. Most of the enthusiasm for that idea appears to have come from Styling or the Engineering Staff rather than the division itself; the XP-727 (and possibly the XP-727-2 and -3) was designed to accept either front- or rear-wheel drive and some early examples of the experimental OHC Cadillac V-12 (described in the sidebar below) were intended for transverse installation, implying at least some tentative notion of using the V-12 in a FWD application. However, both the stylists and contemporary Oldsmobile employees, including former Olds comptroller Dick Elliott, later maintained that Cadillac management remained indifferent to the whole idea.
Harold Warner’s interest or disinterest in FWD would soon become a moot point. By mid-1962, Ed Cole had decided that in order to maximize the corporation’s return on the sizeable tooling costs of the new Oldsmobile personal car, Cadillac should have its own mechanically related car for 1966, sharing the corporate E-body shell with the Olds and the second-generation Riviera. Although formal approval for front-wheel drive would not follow for almost two more years, Cadillac was ordered to collaborate with Oldsmobile and Buick on the development of the FWD powertrain and platform.
In May 1963, the Cadillac studio, now led by Stan Parker, developed a new clay model based on the package dimensions of Oldsmobile’s XP-784 and confusingly sharing the same designation. Cadillac’s XP-784 had little in common with the earlier XP-727 concepts except that it was initially also a two-door coupe; by August, however, this had been superseded by a four-door version, again with rear suicide doors. This, too, appears to have been a dead end and it was dropped by September.
After the demise of the XP-784, the Cadillac studio started over, leading to a new clay, the XP-820. Photos of that model suggest a return to the themes of the earlier XP-727-3, including a similarly low beltline molding and bladed fenders, which according to Stan Parker were originally suggested by Bill Mitchell. The XP-820 also added a number of new elements, including a V-shaped backlight and a curious concave windshield. There were studies of a possible convertible version, although the eventual production car would be offered only as a two-door hardtop.
THE XP-825 AND A NEW ELDORADO
In December, the Cadillac studio started what would become the final clay model, the XP-825. This was not so much a new direction as a refinement of the existing themes, combining the low beltline, sail panels, V-shaped backlight, sharp-edged fenders, and pointed tail of the XP-820 with a new nose treatment featuring a broad, flat eggcrate grille and concealed headlights.
Under the circumstances, the XP-825 could easily have become a hodgepodge, but Stan Parker told Edson Armi that all the designers who worked on it were of a single mind about its purpose and identity. The XP-825 looked almost nothing like its Oldsmobile cousin despite the two cars’ structural commonality and an adroit application of familiar design cues made the XP-825 immediately recognizable as a Cadillac, although it really looked no more like a Calais or Coupe de Ville than it did a Toronado.
According to Dave Holls, Ed Cole liked the XP-825 clay, but was apparently concerned that Jack Gordon would not and took steps to minimize Gordon’s exposure to it, even asking the designers to hide the model after Gordon had seen it so that Gordon couldn’t come back for a second look. This bit of skulduggery evidently either worked or proved unnecessary because the XP-825 received production approval in May 1964.
Although there was apparently talk of calling the XP-825 “LaSalle,” as Bill Mitchell had suggested for the XP-715, the production car would be simply “Eldorado,” replacing the undistinguished rear-drive Fleetwood Eldorado convertible.
By the time the XP-825 was approved, Cadillac had requested an additional year for development, pushing the new Eldorado’s introduction back to the 1967 model year. Many historians have assumed that request stemmed from a desire to refine the new FWD powertrain — which may have been partly true — but we suspect that the delay in styling approval would have made a 1966 introduction very challenging. By the spring of 1964, Buick and Oldsmobile had almost a full year’s head start in production design and body engineering; Chuck Jordan said later that the Cadillac studio had to scramble to catch up.
ENGINEERING THE ELDORADO
Although the E-body Eldorado didn’t look like the Toronado or Riviera, all three cars were shared the same cowl, windshield, and many inner body stampings. From there, the Rivera went its own way (Buick management convinced Ed Cole to let them retain rear-wheel drive and a separate cruciform frame), but the Cadillac and the Oldsmobile were mechanically very similar. Both had semi-unitized body shells, carrying their powertrain and front suspension on a long subframe (designed by Cadillac during the joint development program). Their suspensions — double wishbones and torsion bars in front, a beam axle on single leaf springs in back — differed mainly in tuning, although Cadillac added a standard rear load leveler and Saginaw’s new variable-ratio power steering, neither of which was offered on the Toronado. Cadillac used its own drum brakes, but both cars shared the same TH425 transmission and its novel chain-driven gearbox. Even their final drive ratios were identical.
Despite that commonality, the Eldorado and Toronado did not share the same engine. Since the OHC V-12 had been canceled, Cadillac adapted its existing 429 cu. in. (7,025 cc) V-8 for front-wheel drive, using a special oil pan to allow clearance for the right-hand driveshaft. The 429 cu. in. engine was nominally less powerful than Oldsmobile’s high-output 425 cu. in. (6,965 cc) V-8 — 340 gross horsepower (254 kW) to 385 (287 kW) — but the claimed 480 lb-ft (648 N-m) torque output was very similar and the Cadillac engine was around 40 lb (18 kg) lighter.
Like the Toronado, the Eldorado boasted a completely flat cabin floor, although it had its own interior treatment, substituting a familiar Cadillac ambiance for the Toronado’s space-age flair. As with the Toronado Deluxe, bucket seats were optional (curiously available only with leather upholstery, except by special order), but the standard front seat was a split “Strato Bench,” upholstered to look like buckets. Interior space was reasonable but not generous for the car’s overall dimensions, a consequence of the close-coupled proportions and stylish roofline.
By the time the new Eldorado went into production in the summer of 1966, Cadillac had completed its expansion program, increasing its production facilities by more than 400,000 square feet (38,000 square meters). Nonetheless, the E-body Eldorado was different enough to merit a separate assembly line, a first for Cadillac. Although the body panels were produced at the Fleetwood plant in Detroit, the Eldorado was assembled in a converted engine foundry on Clark Street, which had been retooled for assembly use in 1964. The line moved at a modest 10 cars per hour; Cadillac’s first-year target for the new Eldorado was only 15,000 units, less than 10% of the division’s total volume.
DEBUT: THE 1967 CADILLAC ELDORADO
The 1967 Cadillac Eldorado finally arrived in October 1966. Although it was in some ways more sophisticated than the old Eldorado Brougham, it cost considerably less. In fact, the new Eldo’s $6,277 sticker price was about $350 less than its RWD predecessor. The new car’s position in the Cadillac line was analogous to that of the original Sixty Special; the Eldorado was priced below the Series Seventy-Five formal cars, but about 15% above the popular de Ville line. The Eldorado was also about $1,600 more than a base Toronado.
Critical reaction to the new Eldorado was mostly positive. While the Eldo was in no danger of being mistaken for a sports car, it actually had a modicum of road feel, reasonably accurate steering response, and adequate damping. As with the Toronado, there was almost no torque steer; other than heavy understeer, reviewers noted no serious handling vices. Straight-line performance was more than adequate and the only real dynamic sour note was the brakes, which were unimpressive even with the optional front discs.
Other than its relative firm ride and a bit more road noise, the Eldorado behaved much like any other contemporary Cadillac. Engine and wind noise levels were low and it offered all the mod cons, including an optional automatic air conditioning system that many reviewers considered the best in the world. Car and Driver ultimately dismissed it as a Toronado in a Cadillac suit and wished for something more original, but as a sportier Cadillac, the Eldorado had much to recommend it.
If the buying public recognized the Cadillac Eldorado’s relationship with the Toronado, they weren’t dissuaded by it. While Toronado sales had been disappointing, the 1967 Eldorado exceeded Cadillac’s projections by almost 20%. The final tally for the model year was 17,930 units, nearly three times the Eldorado’s previous record, set back in 1956. Buyer interest was strong enough that Cadillac could easily have sold more. Most of the Eldorados that were sold were fully loaded, bringing the price to nearly $9,000 — enough to buy a house in those days — and discounts were hard to come by. Some customers were so smitten that they didn’t even bother with a test drive.
The Eldorado’s popularity seems to have had remarkably little to do with its front-wheel drive. Popular Mechanics owner surveys found that fewer than 25% of Eldorado buyers had been swayed by its FWD powertrain, compared to more than 40% of Toronado buyers. Owners generally appreciated the Eldorado’s handling and wet-weather traction, but some said outright that they would have bought it regardless of its powertrain. The Eldorado’s biggest selling points were its looks and the undeniable snob appeal of the Cadillac badge. It was the hippest and most stylish exponent of America’s most prestigious automotive brand and buyers responded accordingly.
By all indications, the Eldorado was a profitable car — probably far more profitable than the Toronado — but it had surprisingly little impact on Cadillac’s total volume. The upswing in Eldorado sales for 1967 was balanced by a commensurate dip in sales of the Calais, De Ville, and Sixty Special, so the division ended the ’67 model year within 300 units of its 1966 volume. Since many well-to-do Cadillac owners traded in their cars every year, we suspect that some simply chose the Eldorado over other Cadillac models.
Nonetheless, the Eldorado did appeal to younger buyers — the median owner age was 48, compared to 53 for the marque as a whole — and it had a strong allure for Hollywood celebrities and other tastemakers. As with other Cadillacs, many Eldorado owners were neither rich nor famous, but knowing that their ranks included stars like Elvis Presley and Dick Martin (of Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In) undoubtedly enhanced the Eldorado’s appeal.
As a symbol of conspicuous affluence, the 1967 Eldorado had few direct rivals. Its price and prestige put it in a different class than the Thunderbird and it offered a measure of dash and distinction that Cadillac’s conventional sedans and hardtops couldn’t match. European coupes like the Mercedes W111/W112 series still appealed more to connoisseurs than to the American masses and Lincoln’s Continental Mark III didn’t appear until the spring of 1968 — a rare case in this era of GM beating Ford to the punch in product planning.
THE 1968, 1969, AND 1970 ELDORADO
The FWD Eldorado got only minor design changes for its second year, many of them driven by the new federal safety standards that took effect in January 1968. The most obvious were an even longer hood, concealed windshield wipers, and turn signals integrated into the front fender tips. There was also a new interior with a padded dash and rosewood trim. The previously optional front disc brakes were now standard.
The bigger change was under the massive hood. Cadillac’s previous V-8 had reached the limits of its capacity and it had fallen behind Imperial’s 440 cu. in. (7,206 cc) and Lincoln’s 462 cu. in. (7,565 cc) engines in size and power. In the fall of 1967, Cadillac introduced an all-new V-8 with greater growth potential and provision for emissions control devices. Still a cast iron OHV engine, it was unremarkable except in size: At 472 cu. in. (7,734 cc), it was the largest passenger car engine in the world, rated at 375 gross horsepower (279 kW) and 525 lb-ft (709 N-m) of torque. Since the new engine was accompanied by taller gearing, acceleration was not greatly improved, but the 472 gave the Eldorado a sense of effortless urge at almost any speed.
Cadillac increased Eldorado production for 1968, enough to clear the back orders, but not enough to dampen demand or undermine transaction prices. By the summer of 1968, Eldorados were still selling for full list price, a rarity for Detroit cars. Total production for the 1968 model year was 24,528.
The Eldorado faced its first real competition in April 1968 with the arrival of the Lincoln Continental Mark III. The Mark was about 5 inches (125 mm) shorter than the Eldorado and had a smaller 460 cu. in. (7,542 cc) engine, but in price and appointments, it was clearly aimed at the same market. Thanks to its late introduction, Mark III sales were relatively limited at first, but the Mark and the Eldorado would vie for class supremacy throughout the seventies.
The 1969 Eldorado was little changed mechanically, but it had exposed headlights and another new dashboard design along with side door beams and various other federally mandated safety equipment. For 1970, the big engine was stroked to a full 500 cu. in. (8,194 cc), now rated at 400 gross horsepower (298 kW) and 550 lb-ft (743 N-m) of torque, the latter a record for postwar passenger cars. A power sunroof, made by ASC, was a new option and “Trackmaster” rear ABS became available later in the model year.
Despite competition from the Mark III, Eldorado sales remained strong, totaling 23,333 in 1969 and 28,842 in 1970 — actually edging out the significantly cheaper 1970 Toronado. High demand also boosted the Eldorado’s resale values, which were the best in the industry. Dollar depreciation was quite high, but a well-kept, year-old Eldorado retained close to 95% of its original value.
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE, TAKE TWO
Both the Toronado and Eldorado were redesigned for 1971, growing larger in nearly every dimension. The main mechanical changes were a new full perimeter frame and a new rear suspension, substituting trailing links and coil springs for the earlier leaf springs. The Eldorado retained the 500 cu. in. (8,194 cc) V-8, although a lower compression ratio trimmed its output to 365 gross horsepower (272 kW) and 535 lb-ft (722 N-m) of torque. In the new SAE net system, the big engine was rated a less impressive 235 horsepower (175 kW) and 385 lb-ft (520 N-m).
The 1971 Eldorado’s styling, which Michael Lamm credits to designer Wayne Kady, bore a clear resemblance to the 1967-1970 generation, but also evoked the original 1953 Eldorado with features like rear fender skirts and simulated rear fender air intakes. An interesting and influential touch was the narrow opera windows in the rear sail panels, later adopted by many other American cars.
The other big news, discussed in detail elsewhere, was the arrival of a new Eldorado convertible, the first FWD ragtop built in America since the demise of the Cord 812 in 1937. The market for open cars was on the decline in the early seventies, but the convertible accounted for about 20% of Eldorado sales through 1976, its final year.
Sales of the 1971 Eldorado were down from 1970, but we suspect that had more to do with the protracted UAW strike than buyer reaction to the new styling or $480 higher price. Business recovered soundly for 1972 and remained strong through 1978, the last year of this generation. Although the Eldorado didn’t sell as well as the more ostentatious Continental Mark IV, Cadillac had little to complain about. Even the energy crisis had surprisingly little effect on Eldorado sales.
THE CADILLAC OF CADILLACS
In the late nineties, Chuck Jordan claimed Cadillac originally had little enthusiasm for the E-body Eldorado project. If that’s true, we hope division management was appropriately chagrined because the E-body Eldorado proved to be a great success and a thoroughly effective piece of merchandising. It’s easy to be cynical about platform-sharing, but the Eldorado demonstrates how well it can work: enough shared components to keep costs within reason, but enough distinction to establish a separate identity and justify a higher price.
Lacking the exclusivity, lavish detailing, and sheer gravitas of the old Sixteen or the ’57 Brougham, the 1967 Eldorado will never be as sought after, but we consider it among GM’s finest designs. Its protracted development and structural commonality with its E-body cousins only underscore its achievement. The Eldorado is a remarkably cohesive and confident design, expressing a deep understanding of what a Cadillac should be.
We’ve been very critical of General Motors over the years, but the FWD Eldorado is an excellent example of what made the corporation so successful for so long. It did a lot of things right and it reaped the ample rewards.
Special thanks to Kathy Adelson of the GM Media Archive for her invaluable assistance in locating rare archival photos for this article.
NOTES ON SOURCES
Our sources on the history of the FWD Eldorado included C. Edson Armi, The Art of American Car Design: The Profession and Personalities (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988); the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, “1967-1969 Cadillac Eldorado,” HowStuffWorks.com, 24 November 2007, auto.howstuffworks. com/ 1967-1969-cadillac-eldorado.htm, accessed 4 December 2010; Automotive Mileposts, “1967-1985 Cadillac Fleetwood Eldorado,” n.d., automotivemileposts. com, accessed 4 December 2010; John Barach, “Cadillac History,” Motor Era, 1998-2010, www.motorera. com/ cadillac/index.htm, last accessed 30 December 2010; Thomas E. Bonsall, The Cadillac Story: The Postwar Years (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004); “Cadillac Eldorado,” Automobile Quarterly Vol. 6, No. 1 (Summer 1967), pp. 67-73 (no byline, but possibly written by Don Vorderman and/or Maurice Hendry); Cadillac Motor Division of General Motors Corporation, “Cadillac: The 1967 Standard of the World” [1967 full line brochure], 1967; David R. Crippen, “Reminiscences of Irwin W. Rybicki” [interview], 27 June 1985, Automotive Design Oral History Project, Accession 1673, Benson Ford Research Center, www.autolife.umd.umich. edu/ Design/ Rybicki_interview.htm [transcript], last accessed 14 December 2010; Maurice Hendry, “1967 Cadillac Eldorado: It’s What’s Up Front That Counts,” Special Interest Autos #67 (February 1982), reprinted in Cadillac Eldorado Performance Portfolio 1967-1978, ed. R.M. Clarke (Cobham, England: Brooklands Books Ltd., ca. 2000), pp. 130-137, and Cadillac: Standard of the World: The Complete History (Fourth Edition update by David R. Holls) (Princeton, NJ: Automobile Quarterly, 1990); Dave Holls and Michael Lamm, A Century of Automotive Style: 100 Years of American Car Design (Stockton, CA: Lamm-Morada Publishing Co. Inc., 1997); John Katz, “1966 Oldsmobile Toronado vs. 1967 Cadillac Eldorado: The Front Line of Front-Wheel Drive,” Special Interest Autos #168 (November-December 1998), reprinted in The Hemmings Motor News Book of Cadillacs: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, ed. Terry Ehrich (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2000) pp. 110-119; Gerald Loidl, “The History of the 1967 Cadillac Eldorado – how it was developed,” 2010, www.med-user. net/~eldoradoseville/67eldo/ 67eldohistory/, accessed 25 October 2010; and Gary Smith, ed., Ron VanGelderen and Charles M. Jordan, “Exclusive 2006 Interview with Charles M. (Chuck) Jordan,” Dean’s Garage, 24 July 2012, deansgarage. com/ 2012/ exclusive-2006-interview-with-charles-m-chuck-jordan/, accessed 7 October 2012.
Information on the origins of the Riviera came from Michael Lamm, “The Car You Wear: 1963 Buick Riviera,” Special Interest Autos #33 (March-April 1976), reprinted in The Hemmings Book of Buicks: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, ed. Terry Ehrich (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2001), pp. 94-100. Information on the origins of the Toronado came from Helen Jones Earley and James R. Walkinshaw, Setting the Pace: Oldsmobile’s First 100 Years (Lansing, MI: Oldsmobile Division of General Motors Corporation, 1996); Michael Lamm, “Toro & Cord: So different and yet so much alike!” Special Interest Autos #35 (July-August 1976), reprinted in The Hemmings Book of Oldsmobiles: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, ed. Terry Ehrich (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2001), pp. 100-107; and Donald MacDonald, “Developing the Toronado,” Motor Trend Vol. 17, No. 12 (December 1965), pp. 40-45. A few details on the four-seat Thunderbird came from Tim Howley, “1958 Thunderbird: Flying Off in a New Direction,” Special Interest Autos #151 (January-February 1996), reprinted in The Hemmings Motor News Book of Postwar Fords: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, ed. Terry Ehrich (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2000), pp. 86-94.
Additional information about the 1953-1966 Eldorado, Eldorado Seville, Eldorado Biarritz, and Fleetwood Eldorado convertible came from Matt Larson and Yann Saunders, “The Fabulous 1953 Cadillac Eldorado,” The Cadillac Database, 20 February 2003, www.cadillacdatabase. com, accessed 8 December 2010; Yann Saunders, “The Cadillac Eldorado with rear-wheel drive,” The Cadillac Database, 29 June 2009, www.cadillacdatabase. com, accessed 8 December 2010; John G. Tennyson, “SIA comparisonReport: GM’s Glamorous Threesome for 1953: Cadillac Eldorado, Buick Skylark, Oldsmobile Fiesta,” Special Interest Autos #134 (March-April 1993), reprinted in The Hemmings Book of Buicks, pp. 34-41.
Additional information about the Eldorado Brougham came from the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, “1957-1960 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham,” HowStuffWorks.com, 6 November 2007, auto.howstuffworks. com/ 1957-1960-cadillac-eldorado-brougham.htm, accessed 22 October 2010; “Mark II Meets Eldorado Brougham,” Special Interest Autos #2 (November-December 1970), reprinted in The Hemmings Motor News Book of Cadillacs, pp. 94-101; Pierre Ollier, “The Final Broughams,” Special Interest Autos #46 (August 1978), pp. 34-39; and Yann Saunders, “The Fabulous Cadillac Eldorado Brougham” The Cadillac Database, 10 October 2005, www.cadillacdatabase. com/ Dbas_txt/Brg_chap.htm, accessed 8 December 2010.
Information on Cadillac’s postwar Sixteen concepts and V-12 came from the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, “Great Expectations: Cadillac’s Postwar V-12 and V-16,” Cars That Never Were: The Prototypes (Skokie, IL: Publications International, Ltd. 1981), pp. 6-9; Roger Huntington, “It makes sense…New V-12 for Cadillac,” Motor Trend Vol 17, No. 9 (September 1965), pp. 70-71; Richard M. Langworth, “Cadillac’s Colossal Postwar Multi-Cylinders: V-12s and V-16s for the Sixties? Well, maybe…” Special Interest Autos #64 (August 1981), pp. 24-29; Gary Smith, “Wayne Kady,” Dean’s Garage, 10 November 2010, deansgarage. com/ 2010/wayne-kady/, accessed 11 November 2010; and Daniel Strohl, “Success! Cadillac’s OHC V-12 engine photos found,” Hemmings Blog, 14 April 2010, blog.hemmings. com, accessed 19 December 2010. The latter incorporates information from Karl Ludvigsen, The V-12 Engine: The Untold Inside Story of the Technology, Evolution, Performance and Impact of All V-12-Engined Cars (Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset: Haynes Publishing, 2005), to which we did not have access at the time of writing.
Some general information came from the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, Encyclopedia of American Cars: Over 65 Years of Automotive History (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 1996); “Gordon, John F.,” Generations of GM History, n.d., GM Heritage Center, history.gmheritagecenter. com, accessed 22 December 2010; John Gunnell, ed., Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975, rev. 4th ed. (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2002); the Productioncars.com Book of Automobile Production and Sales Figures, 1945-2005; Yann Saunders, “The (new) Cadillac Database Glossary of Cadillac Terms and Definitions,” The Cadillac Database, 1996, www.cadillacdatabase. com; last accessed 22 December 2010; and Eric Weiner, “Time Warp: The GM Strike, Then and Now,” NPR, 26 September 2007, www.npr. org, accessed 20 December 2010.
We also consulted the following period road tests: “Ford Thunderbird [vs] Cadillac Eldorado,” Car and Driver November 1966; Joseph Geschelin, “Assembling the Eldorado,” Automotive Industries January 1967; Robert Schilling, “Eldorado Switches from Push to Pull,” Motor Trend January 1967; “Cadillac V8 – 429 Cubic Inches,” Petersen’s Complete Book of Engines 1967; “Cadillac Eldorado: An Admirable Flagship for the Captain of Industry,” Car Life April 1967; “Cadillac for 1968: Biggest engines in the industry and subtle styling changes for newest ‘standard of the world,'” Car Life December 1967; “The Most Wanted Car in the World,” Road Test September 1968; Bill Hartford, “Too Rough a Ride for the Soft Life,” Popular Mechanics July 1969; “New Cars: 1969 Luxury Specialty: Eldorado,” World Cars 1969; “Cadillac Eldorado: Still Wanted But Worth It?” Road Test April 1970; “Cadillac Fleetwood Eldorado: Ownership is not a symbol of success, but success itself,” Car and Driver April 1970; and Bill Sanders, “King of the Hill: Road testing the Lincoln Continental Mark III and Cadillac Eldorado,” Motor Trend July 1970; “GM: Cadillac,” Motor Trend 1971 Buyers Guide; John Lamm, “King of the Hill: Eldo-Mark III Revisited,” Motor Trend July 1971; “RT/Test Report: Top Luxury for Pennies…It’s not the $10,700 first cost but the $473 first year’s depreciation that makes the Eldorado a best buy,” Road Test May 1972; and John Lamm, “King of the Hill: Cadillac Eldorado vs. Lincoln Continental Mark IV,” Motor Trend July 1972, all of which are reprinted in Cadillac Eldorado Performance Portfolio 1967-1978.
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- Plutocrat Pony Car: The 1966-1970 Buick Riviera
- Razor-Sharp Style: The 1963–1965 Buick Riviera
- Requiem for Misterl: The 1959 Cadillac and the Winter of Harley Earl
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