Fish Story: The Plymouth Barracuda (Part One)

If you ask the average person to name an American sporty car of the late sixties, you probably won’t hear “Plymouth Barracuda” unless the person is a dedicated Mopar fan. In a way, that’s curious, because the Barracuda was the first of the so-called pony cars to hit the market (even before the Ford Mustang) and in some areas it was arguably superior to its Ford rival. So, why was the Barracuda doomed to be a perennial also-ran? This is the sad story of the 1964-1969 Plymouth Barracuda.


The early sixties were not an auspicious time for Chrysler’s Plymouth brand. Only a few years earlier, Virgil Exner’s handsome “Forward Look” Plymouths had stolen styling leadership from General Motors, while their buttoned-down “Torsion-Aire” suspension had set new standards for big-car handling. A ’57 Plymouth with the right engine was one of the fastest, most roadworthy cars in America. Sadly, it was all downhill from there, as quality-control problems, a propensity for early corrosion, and a succession of questionable styling decisions savaged Plymouth’s image and reputation. To make matters worse, in 1962, a serious intelligence failure led Plymouth’s big cars to be hastily downsized to what were then intermediate proportions, accompanied by thoroughly bizarre styling.

Plymouth’s only saving grace was the compact Valiant, its rival to Chevrolet’s Corvair and the Ford Falcon. The Valiant never sold as well as its Ford or Chevy rivals, but it did respectable business and helped to offset the sharp decline in sales of the larger Plymouth models.

1963 Plymouth Valiant Signet front 3q
Until the introduction of the Plymouth Barracuda in April 1964, the sportiest member of the Valiant family was the hardtop Signet. Introduced in 1962, it was redesigned with the rest of the Valiant line in 1963. The second generation’s styling is notably less odd than its predecessor’s. (This car’s Moon wheels are not stock.)

In better days, Plymouth was supposed to be a rival for Chevrolet and Ford, the third of the traditional “Low-Priced Three.” In basic hardware, it gave away little to its competitors, but it fell well behind in image. As the economy improved during the Kennedy era, buyers were again looking for sporty, exciting cars, not just basic transportation. At the time, Ford and Chevy each had a glamorous halo car — the Thunderbird and the Corvette — and Chevrolet had also reinvented its Corvair as a sporty compact. Plymouth, meanwhile, had nothing. Its big 413 cu. in. (6,771 cc) “Max Wedge” engine was a fearsome dragstrip and NASCAR competitor, but it wasn’t the sort of thing anyone but an amateur hot-rodder would want to drive on the street.

In late 1962, Chrysler-Plymouth introduced the second-generation 1963 Plymouth Valiant, now sporting squared-off and considerably soberer styling that eschewed most of its predecessor’s peculiar curves. At launch, there were three series and five body styles: two- and four-door sedans, a four-door wagon, a two-door hardtop, and a new convertible. The mechanical specifications were little changed, which meant unit construction, torsion bar front suspension, and a choice of 170 cu. in. (2,790 cc) or 225 cu. in. (3,862 cc) sixes with up to 145 gross horsepower (108 kW).

Even before the new Valiant launched, Chrysler-Plymouth product planner Joe Strum wondered if it was a little too conservative for its own good. Compact car buyers were already gravitating toward sportier models like the Chevrolet Corvair Monza or the dressed-up Ford Falcon Futura; by comparison, even the top-of-the-line Valiant Signet hardtop looked a little frumpy. (Buyers may have thought so too, since 1963 Signet sales amounted to only about 40,000 units, less than one-fifth the sales of the 1963 Corvair Monza.) The convertible, available in either Signet or V-200 trim, was a step in the right direction, but its addition just served to bring Plymouth even with Chevrolet and Ford, which already had convertible compacts. Strum ventured that the Valiant line needed something a little more distinctive.

1965 Plymouth Barracuda backlight
The Plymouth Barracuda’s enormous backlight, developed in partnership with Pittsburgh Plate Glass (PPG), had a total area of 2,070 square inches (1.34 square meters) — by far the largest piece of automotive glass Detroit had ever seen — and was tinted to cut down on solar heat gain. The extra weight of the glass and other body and equipment changes made the Barracuda about 100 pounds (45 kg) heavier than a comparable Valiant hardtop. Unlike some other ‘glassback’ designs, the glass is fixed; the Barracuda is not a hatchback.


Back in 1959, designer Tom Ferris had come up with a sporty fastback body style for the full-style Plymouths, featuring an enormous curved rear window. Designers Dave Cummins and Irv Ritchie developed a similar fastback roof for the Valiant, but the full-size fastback became one of the various casualties of the ill-fated scramble to downsize the ’62 Plymouths and development of the Valiant version didn’t go forward until mid-1962. Even then, it was opposed by product planning chief Frank Walter, Joe Strum’s boss.

The final design, refined by stylist Milt Antonick, was largely identical to the standard second-generation Valiant hardtop below the beltline. The roof and reverse-slant sail panels were new, as were the upward-sloping decklid and the pièce de resistance, the massive wraparound backlight. The latter, made for Plymouth by Pittsburgh Plate Glass, was a production challenge and undoubtedly expensive (which was presumably why the full-size fastback had been axed), but it added a distinctive if polarizing stylistic touch. There was also a new grille treatment with inset parking lamps.

Nobody was particularly satisfied with the Barracuda’s obvious resemblance to the workaday Valiant, but money was still tight and making extensive changes to the Valiant’s unitized body would have been prohibitively expensive. Beyond that, Plymouth management wanted the Barracuda to be ready as quickly as possible so they could beat the Ford’s Mustang to market.

After some internal argument, the new model was dubbed Plymouth Valiant Barracuda, the latter designation suggested by designer John Samsen. The Barracuda was initially considered part of the Signet series and shared the Signet’s running gear and much of its trim. However, the fastback got a unique fold-down rear seat and removable package shelf that allowed a flat load floor from the front seat backs to the trunk. (Using this space for cargo required some care, however, because of the exposed fuel-filler, an awkward reminder of the Barracuda’s budget-conscious engineering.)

The Barracuda came standard with the Valiant’s 170 cu. in. (2,790 cc) Slant Six, making 101 gross horsepower (75 kW), but most cars had either the 225 cu. in. (3,681 cc) six or the new lightweight LA-series 273 cu. in. (4,482 cc) V8, which had become optional on the Valiant and Dart earlier in the year. The V8 was only about 55 lb (25 kg) heavier than the larger Slant Six, but provided 180 gross hp (134 kW). All three engines came standard with the Valiant’s three-speed manual transmission, but a Warner T-10 four-speed was optional, as was Chrysler’s excellent three-speed TorqueFlite automatic.

1965 Plymouth Barracuda rear 3q
The first-generation Plymouth Barracuda was 188.2 inches (4,780 mm) long on a 106-inch (2,692mm) wheelbase, 7.4 inches (188 mm) longer than a Mustang. With a V8 and automatic, the Barracuda weighed around 3,280 pounds (1,490 kg). Like all mid-sixties Chrysler cars, it has independent front suspension with torsion bar springs and a live axle on leaf springs in back. This car’s streamlined “Moon” wheels are not stock. (Photo © 2003 Don Kasak; used with permission)


As it finally emerged, the first Plymouth Barracuda was an eye-catching but curiously ambivalent product, as if Plymouth had set out to make something really distinct from the Valiant only to lose interest or enthusiasm halfway through. The marketing campaign left a similar impression, suggesting that Chrysler-Plymouth wasn’t sure exactly how to market the car. The early ads made much of the cargo-carrying versatility offered by the folding rear seat (which was admittedly handy), but an unnamed Chrysler-Plymouth executive also told an understandably perplexed Car and Driver editor that the division also expected the Barracuda to snare a few Corvette buyers.

It should be said that product planning and marketing executives make whole careers of attempting to have their cake and eat it too, but the whole point of specialty cars is to offer a level of conceptual focus that mainstream family cars necessarily lack. Had the Barracuda been a compact sport-utility vehicle, there would have been nothing wrong with emphasizing its utility and versatility — in a later era, appeals to young buyers with “active lifestyles” would become an automotive marketing cliché — but it was an odd choice for what was supposed to be a sporty fastback.

Those mixed messages might not have been so much of a problem had the Ford Mustang had never existed, but the Mustang did exist and Ford had so clearly delineated its marketing mission that the Plymouth seemed hapless and confused in comparison. Indeed, the haziness of the Barracuda’s image quickly became perhaps its most crippling problem.

1965 Plymouth Barracuda front view
Standard engine in the Plymouth Barracuda was the Valiant’s Slant Six. In 1964, the 101 horsepower (75 kW) 170 cu. in. (2,790 cc) version was standard, but for 1965, it was replaced by the previously optional 225 cu. in. (3,682 cc) engine with 145 gross horsepower (108 kW). The optional V8 was Chrysler’s LA-series 273 cu. in.(4,482 cc) engine with 180 gross horsepower (134 kW). From 1965 to 1967, there was also a hotter 235 hp (175 kW) version, standard with the Formula S package.

The Barracuda did indeed beat the Mustang to showrooms, albeit only by 16 days — bowing, perversely enough, on April Fool’s Day 1964. To no one’s great surprise, the Barracuda performed much like the Valiant it so clearly was, which wasn’t bad, but was hardly sporting. In fairness, the Valiant was considered one of the better-handling Detroit cars of its time, but the extra mass of the Barracuda’s backlight (and its effects on the center of gravity) didn’t do its balance any favors.

As for straight-line performance, it was again much like that of the Valiant or Dart. With the 225 cu. in. (3,682 cc) six, 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) took around 14 seconds and top speed was perhaps 95 mph (153 km/h). The V8 trimmed about 3 seconds from the 0-60 (0-97 km/h) times and allowed the Barracuda to break the 100 mph (161 km/h) mark. That was competitive with the Corvair Monza and Monza Spider, but the Barracuda didn’t have anything to match the more powerful 225 hp (168 kW) and 271 hp (202 kW) 289 cu. in. (4,728 cc) V8s optional on the Mustang.

The Barracuda was competitively priced — starting at $2,365, it was actually $3 cheaper than a six-cylinder Mustang — but with awkward looks, average performance, and unfocused marketing, the Barracuda caused no anxiety for Ford salesmen. The fastback Valiant sold 23,443 units in its short 1964 season, about one-fifth the number of Mustangs sold during the same period. Being first, it turns out, is no great advantage if nobody notices.


The Plymouth Barracuda’s performance got a much-needed boost in 1965 with a new Formula S option package, developed with input from Chrysler engineer and rally champion Scott Harvey and based on the modifications previously made to the Valiants and Darts that had competed in the 1963 Monte Carlo Rally. The package included a hotter version of the 273 cu. in. (4,482 cc) V8 with a higher-lift, longer-duration camshaft, freer-flowing exhaust, and a four-barrel Carter AFB carburetor, making 235 gross horsepower (175 kW). This was accompanied by stiffer springs, heavy-duty shocks, faster steering, and wider tires. Front disc brakes were newly optional.

With the Formula S engine and the optional four-speed manual transmission (now Chrysler’s own A-833 rather than the Warner T-10), a 1965 Barracuda could go from 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) in around 8 seconds and reach a top speed of perhaps 115 mph (185 km/h). Handling was also much improved. Although the suspension could still lose its cool over broken pavement, on smooth roads the Barracuda Formula S was a rival for some contemporary European sports cars. The faster steering ratio also provided a useful compromise between the frustratingly slow standard setup and the optional power steering, which was quicker, but utterly numb. In all, the Formula S was a credible effort, if still not as fast as a K-code Mustang.

The Formula S package’s efforts to dress up the Barracuda’s gawky appearance were less successful. Contemporary reviewers had few kind words for the cop-baiting (though mercifully optional) racing stripes or the over-styled wheel covers.

The standard Barracuda was much the same as before, but it no longer wore Valiant identification (it was now classed as a separate model), the 225 cu. in. (3,682 cc) six was newly standard, and front discs were optional across the line. Sales for the Barracuda’s first full model year rose to 64,596, which was much better than the slow-selling Valiant Signet, but no match for the restyled Chevrolet Corvair, much less the Mustang, which outsold the Barracuda by almost 9 to 1.

The original body returned for a swan song in 1966, discarding its inset running lights for eggcrate grille inserts that made the nose look even busier than before. There was also a new dashboard with full instrumentation (including a tachometer on Formula S car). Sales slumped to 38,029, compared to 607,568 Mustangs.

1965 Plymouth Barracuda rear view
Other than the big rear window, the first-generation Plymouth Barracuda’s great party trick was a fold-down rear seat, a novelty in this era. It wasn’t nearly as versatile as a modern hatchback and its usefulness was somewhat limited by the exposed and vulnerable fuel filler in the left side of the trunk, but its 7-foot (2.1-meter) load floor was well suited to hauling skis, camping equipment, or surfboards. More than a few Barracuda owners slept in the back of their cars on camping trips or long journeys.


With such uninspiring sales, Plymouth might ordinarily have considered killing the Barracuda entirely, but the division managers were not about to relinquish their one toehold into the lucrative compact specialty car market. By mid-1964, designers were working on the second-generation car, which finally debuted in late November 1966 as a 1967 model, alongside the restyled Valiant and Dart. Booming Mustang sales finally convinced Chrysler management that it was worth investing the money to further differentiate the Barracuda from the Valiant, which they probably should have done in the first place.

1968 Plymouth Barracuda side view
The 1967-1969 Plymouth Barracuda was 192.8 inches (4,897 mm) long on a 108-inch (2,743mm) wheelbase, making it several inches longer than the original model. It was also 1.6 inches (41 mm) lower. Note the tiny side marker lights, hastily added to comply with 1968 U.S. federal safety standards.

Although the new Plymouth Barracuda still shared the basic A-body platform of the Valiant and Dart, all sheet metal was now unique. The new Barracuda was a few inches longer and wider than before: 192.8 inches (4,897 mm) long and 71.6 inches (1,819 mm) wide on a 108-inch (2,743mm) wheelbase. Again styled by Milt Antonick, with contributions from Dave Cummins, Irv Ritchie, John Samsen, and John Herlitz, et al, it was far less clumsy-looking than its predecessor and offered a choice of three different body styles rather than just one. There was still a fastback, now with a smaller, more conventional rear window, but there was also a convertible and a sleek, notchback hardtop.

1968 Plymouth Barracuda rear 3q view
Unlike the Mustang, whose hardtop body style was always the best seller, buyers of the second-generation Plymouth Barracuda preferred the fastback by a slim margin. The fastback weighed about 85 pounds (39 kg) more than the hardtop and cost roughly $200 more.

You could still order the Formula S package in 1967, although the 235 hp (175 kW) engine was starting to feel a little over-matched by the new body, which was more than 100 pounds (45 kg) heavier than before. Originally, Plymouth planned to offer the bigger 318 cu. in. (5,204 cc) V8, but news that Ford was about to offer its 390 cu. in. (6,391 cc) big block in the redesigned 1967 Mustang prompted Chrysler-Plymouth engineers to shoehorn Chrysler’s big 383 cu. in. (6,276 cc) B engine under the Barracuda’s hood.

For the most part, putting big block V8s into pony cars represented a triumph of marketing over engineering common sense. None of these cars was especially well-balanced to begin with and adding an additional 200 lb (90 kg), most of it over the front wheels, definitely didn’t help. As with the 390 in the Mustang, the big Chrysler B engine was a tight squeeze for the Barracuda’s engine bay, leaving no room for a power steering pump (or air conditioning, although that wasn’t necessarily a common option on pony cars anyway). With 280 gross horsepower (209 kW) and 400 lb-ft (540 N-m) of torque, the Barracuda 383 was fast in a straight line, but it felt far more cumbersome than the 273 cu. in. (4,482 cc) Formula S and was a chore to park.

1968 Plymouth Barracuda front view
The second-generation Plymouth Barracuda’s engine bay was 2 inches (51 mm) wider than before, but the optional 383 cu. in. (6,276 cc) engine and its bulky exhaust manifolds were still a tight squeeze. Power steering wasn’t available with the 383 until 1969, air conditioning was never offered, and changing spark plugs was best accomplished with telekinesis. The revised exhaust manifolds also reduced the 383’s gross output by 45 hp (34 kW) compared to the same engine in larger Chrysler cars. This 1968 Barracuda fastback has the basic 318 cu. in. (5,204 cc) V8 and TorqueFlite, a far more sensible if less speedy combination.

Fortunately, help was in store for 1968. The Slant Six was still standard, but the 273 was dropped in favor of the bigger 318 cu. in. (5,204 cc) V8, offering 230 gross horsepower (172 kW) with a two-throat carburetor. A new alternative was the 340 cu. in. (5,567 cc) LA-series V8, which claimed a conservative 275 gross horsepower (205 kW). The 340 was as almost strong as (if not stronger than) the 383, but was about the same size and weight as the 318, making it a much better fit for the Barracuda’s engine bay.

The 340 and 383 were still far from the most powerful engines Plymouth built. A few 1968 Barracudas — perhaps as many as 75 — had the monstrous 426 Hemi (6,974 cc) crammed under their hoods. The Hemi-powered cars were sold without warranties, bound solely for the dragstrip. It was just as well, since a Barracuda with 760 pounds (345 kg) of Hemi stuffed into the nose would not have been a pleasant prospect for street driving.

1969_Plymou1969 Plymouth Barracuda hardtop rear 3q view
According to designer Milt Antonick, the styling of the second-generation Plymouth Barracuda drew some inspiration from the Studebaker Avanti, but the overall proportions are more reminiscent of the second-generation Chevrolet Corvair hardtop. We find it very attractive in profile, but eschewing the popular long-hood/short-deck proportions of the Mustang didn’t do the Barracuda’s sales any favors. Note the slight S-curve of the C-pillars and the concave shape of the rear window.


With better styling, more powerful engines, and higher performance, you’d think the second-generation Plymouth Barracuda would’ve sold much better, but Plymouth continued to eat the Mustang’s dust. It was also outpaced by the new Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, and Mercury Cougar.

Plymouth gamely tried a few more tricks for 1969, belatedly making power steering available for the 383 cu. in. (6,276 cc) engine, offering an optional 440 cu. in. (7,206 cc) engine (which proved even more unwieldy than the 383), and adding a new budget-muscle model called ‘Cuda, which included the Formula S suspension and 340 cu. in. (5,567 cc) V8 engine as standard equipment. It was to little avail — the Barracuda barely managed to edge out AMC’s Javelin, let along its Ford and Chevy competitors. The best year of this generation, 1967, was actually a little lower than the peak sales of the first-generation Barracuda.

1969 Plymouth Barracuda 340-S engine © 2008 Dave G. (used with permission)
The 340 cu. in. (5,567 cc) V8, part of the same “LA” series as the 273 and 318, was introduced in 1968. Radically oversquare with big valves and a hot cam, its 275 gross horsepower (205 kW) rating was probably conservative — the National Hot Rod Association “factored” it to more than 300 horsepower (223 kW) for racing classification purposes. It was a thirsty engine, but a 340-powered Barracuda was capable of 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) in around 7 seconds and the quarter mile in the 14s, with trap speeds around 95 mph (153 km/h). With proper gearing, top speed was more than 125 mph (201 km/h). (Photo: “Rough engine compartment” © 2008 dd g (Dave G.; used with permission)

In some ways, that failure was unfair. The 1967–1969 Plymouth Barracuda might not have been the best-looking pony car, but it was hardly an eyesore and it no longer looked like a Valiant. The 340-S and ‘Cuda offered handling and performance to match most rivals. The Barracuda had its foibles, but so did every other car in its class.

The real problem, we suspect, was that the Barracuda was still hampered by its association with its oddball predecessor. In retrospect, Plymouth might have been better off abandoning the Barracuda name after 1966 and coming up with a different moniker for the second-generation car. In that case, the Mustang’s head start would probably still have limited Plymouth’s market penetration (just as it did GM’s late-to-the-party Camaro and Firebird), but the Plymouth pony car wouldn’t have had as much baggage to overcome. The second-generation Barracuda was not the most conceptually original product, but there was no doubt about what it was supposed to be, something that couldn’t be said about the original Valiant-based fastback.

1969 Plymouth Barracuda 340-S badge © 2008 Dave G. (used with permission)
The Barracuda 340-S and 383-S were the final incarnation of the original, sporty Plymouth Barracuda Formula S. Based on the modifications made to Valiant and Dart rally cars, the Formula S package included a heavy-duty suspension, quick steering, and fatter tires. A Barracuda so equipped had excellent handling by the standards of contemporary American cars, at least on smooth pavement. By the late sixties, it was relatively rare — in 1969, only 1,839 340-S models were sold, most (1,431) of them fastbacks like this one. The 383-S accounted for a mere 718 cars. (Photo: “Formula 340s Badge” © 2008 dd g (Dave G.; used with permission)

As we’ll see in our second installment, Plymouth took the Barracuda concept in two different directions for 1970, each with quite different results.



Our sources for the development of the Barracuda and Duster included the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, Encyclopedia of American Cars: Over 65 Years of Automotive History, (Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 1996); Arch Brown, “1965 Plymouth Barracuda,” Special Interest Autos #82 (July-August 1984), reprinted in The Hemmings Book of Plymouths: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, eds. Terry Ehrich and Richard A. Lentinello (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2002), pp. 102-109, and “1970 ‘Cuda Six-Pack: Plymouth’s Prancing Pony,” Special Interest Autos #98 (March-April 1987), reprinted in The Hemmings Motor News Book of Chrysler Performance Cars: driveReports from Special Interest Autos magazine, eds. Terry Ehrich and Richard A. Lentinello (Bennington, VT: Hemmings Motor News, 2000), pp. 108-115; Jeffrey I. Godshall, “In with the New: The 1963-66 Plymouth Valiant Story,” Collectible Automobile Vol. 26, No. 4 (December 2009), pp. 50–63; Bob McMay, “Barracuda! Fleet fastback on Valiant chassis,” Motor Trend May 1964, pp. 26-27; David Newhardt, Dodge Challenger & Plymouth Barracuda (Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 2000); Curtis Redgap, “Challenger for 2008: On time or two late? (Chrysler in the muscle car era),”, 2006, www.allpar. com, accessed 28 September 2008; “Duster: The Plymouth That Almost Wasn’t,”, 2004, www.valiant. org/ duster.html, accessed 2 October 2008; and Paul Zazarine, Barracuda and Challenger (Muscle Car Color History) (Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1991).

Road tests we consulted for this story included “Dodge Dart GT V-8,” Car Life April 1964, reprinted in Dodge Muscle Portfolio 1964-1971, ed. R.M. Clarke (Cobham, England: Brooklands Books Ltd., ca. 2003); Bob McVay, “Valiant Barracuda Road Test,” Motor Trend August 1964, pp. 40-43, and “Rally Packed Barracuda,” Motor Trend January 1965, pp. 38-43; John Etheridge, “Sporty Specialties: Mustang, Camaro & Barracuda,” and “Sporty Cars: Special Packages,” Motor Trend May 1967, pp. 28-33 and 41-42; and Julian Schmidt, “The Barracuda 383,” Motor Trend September 1967, pp. 52-53; “Plymouth Barracuda,” Car and Driver May 1964; Eric Dahlquist, “Formula S,” Hot Rod February 1965; “Barracuda S,” Car Life June 1965; “1966 Plymouth Barracuda,” Road & Track March 1966; “Barracuda Formula S,” Car and Driver June 1966; “One that gets away,” CAR September 1966; “Barracuda Formula S,” Auto Topics February 1967; Jean Calvin, “Rally Driver’s Report: 1967 Plymouth Baracuda ‘Formula S,'” Sports Car Graphic February 1967; “A Pair of Barracuda,” Car Life March 1967; “Mustang, Barracuda & Camaro,” Road & Track March 1967; “Plymouth Barracuda 383,” Car and Driver April 1967; “Autocar Road Test Number 2147: Plymouth Barracuda 4,473 c.c.,” Autocar 31 August 1967; “1968 Plymouth Barracuda 340-S,” Car Life December 1967; “1968 Barracudas: The International Viewpoint,” and Scott Harvey, “Tame & Wild 1968 Barracudas,” Sports Car Graphic December 1967; “1969 ‘Cuda 340,” Car Life November 1967; Eric Dahlquist, “‘Cuda 340,” Motor Trend October 1968; Steve Kelly, “Barracuda on the Line,” Hot Rod December 1968; and “Biggest Engine Yet in a Ponycar— 440 ‘Cuda,” Car Life June 1969, all of which are reprinted in Plymouth Muscle Portfolio 1964-1971, ed. R.M. Clarke (Cobham, England: Brooklands Books Ltd., ca. 2003); and Ray Broc, “Barracuda,” Hot Rod July 1964; Jerry Titus, “Driver’s Report: Barracuda ‘Formula S,'” Sports Car Graphic March 1966; and “Barracuda,” Road Test February 1969, all of which are reprinted in Plymouth Muscle Portfolio 1964-1971, ed. R.M. Clarke (Cobham, England: Brooklands Books Ltd., ca. 2003); and “The Sporty Cars: Javelin SST vs. Camaro SS396 vs. Firebird 400 HO vs. Mustang 2+2 GT vs. Barracuda Formula S vs. Cougar XR-7,” Car and Driver March 1968, reprinted in The Great Classic Muscle Cars Compared (Muscle Portfolio), ed. R.M. Clarke (Cobham, England: Brooklands Books Ltd., ca. 1999).


Add a Comment
  1. “A ’57 Plymouth Fury with the right engine was one of the fastest, most roadworthy cars in America.”
    If I’m not mistaken, there was only one engine available in the 57 Plymouth Fury, a dual quad 318 rated somewhere around 290hp.

    1. You’re quite right — the first year for optional engines on the Fury was 1958. That really should just have been “a ’57 Plymouth with the right engine.” I’ve amended the text accordingly. Thanks!

    2. Yeah U right
      My bro had one back in 64-65. That thing was a freak. It saw a buck fifty in short order!

  2. Im restoring a 1969 340-S fastback and Im ready for some rubber on the rims. What tires came standard for that model?

    thxs Scott

    1. According to contemporary magazine reviews, the standard size for the 340 cars was E70-14 on 14×5.5J wheels.


    1. ¿En cuál sentido?

        1. They didn’t ask in English, and the question wasn’t directed at you, so why do you care?

  4. Since I owned five different MoPar vehicles, I guess you can call me one of those MoPar “fans” (wink,wink):

    1971 Dodge Charger 318/2BBL, 3A
    1970½ Plymouth AAR ‘Cuda 340/6BBL, 4M
    1968 Dodge Charger 383/2BBL, 3A
    1967 Barracuda 383 Formula S, 4M
    1965 Barracuda 273 Formula S, 4M

    1. Don’t be shy Earle’s I’m proud Mopar man. With a ton of history to back it

  5. I owned a 1966 Formula S Barracuda with a hopped up 273 V8. This car beat an AMX 390 handily. Naturally, big cubic inches such as the 426 Hemi, 440 6 Pack, 427 Rat, 427 side oiler and others were big at the top end. But for the first 60 feet, it was the small block leading the way. Had 3.91 Sure Grip rear end for extra mojo.

    I wish I still had that automobile.

  6. My favorite affordable car of the 1960s during my late teens/early twenties was the Barracuda 340. You could have a Mustang that handled like a greased pig on wet roads and scare the hell out of yourself with just a 225 hp/4 MT, how about a 289/271hp Comet Caliente that was even nuttier, both built on the, IMO, hopeless Falcon chassis, or the somewhat better Camaro based on the squidgy Chevy II platform.

    Well, Valiants and Darts had an almost bombproof cockroach-like ability to last even in rust-prone climes by comparison. So, a nice Barrauda 340 with Torqueflite flew under the radar and by just about anything else that didn’t have a big block, or rumpa-tum-tum idle like the 327/350 Chevy II which would veer off into the boondocks at full chat. Quite refined for the time, the 340 burbling up steep inclines with four passengers at 1400 rpm, then instantly going insane when there was a couple hundred yards of straight to pass that farmer holding you up in his pickup truck. No squirrelly rear-end, not even much rubber from a full throttle start. It just went. Properly.

    Most unusual for the times, a somewhat refined quick car that wasn’t a giant tub o’lard or a rackety bag o’ bolts. And forgotten as well. A pity.

  7. I read in “Dodge Challenger & Plymouth Barracuda: Chrysler’s Potent Pony Cars” by Peter Grist, that the 1967 Barracuda was designed by a combination of designers. John Herlitz did the 1967 Barracuda S-X fastback concept which was the basis of the ’67 ‘Cudas. He left when he was temporarily called to the National Guard so John (Dick) Samsen took over to develop the fastback design. He redid the front end and hood, and later designed an new notchback version, Antonick and Dave Cummins did the rear glass window in the fastback and rearend. The metal gas cap was the idea of Antonick, inspired from Triumph TR3s/4s.

    1. Although the article doesn’t go into the styling in any detail, that is my understanding of how it went.

  8. all i have to say is that all you people that post this shit dont no any thing and if the 383 was heavy in the front so was a camaro with a396 and a mustang with a 390 the only reason that they didnt sell was because mopar will never get what they have coming to them becauseall the test people are gm and ford i have a 383 cuda that blew the doors off alot of camaros and mustsngs so thats my story and im stickin to it

    1. @ Mark: I’m not sure with whom you’re disagreeing. Nobody (certainly not me) is going to argue that a Camaro 396 or Mustang 390 wasn’t just as nose heavy or unwieldy, or that a 383 Barracuda wouldn’t still outrun them in a straight line. The main edge the Camaro and Mustang had in that regard is that you could get the big engines with power steering, which didn’t make them nimble or well-balanced (and is small consolation to anyone who’s ever tried to change the plugs on a big-block Mustang of that vintage).

    2. Neither the Chevies nor the Fords had torsion bar suspension, which is vastly superior to coil springs. 67-68 mustangs were very light in the rear and spun out very easily. I know, I used to own a 68 Mustang coupe. Glad I got rid of that bucket. My 68 Barracuda fastback is far far superior in handling. Have you owned and driven both a ’68 Mustang and a ’68 Barracuda to actually make a side by side comparison, like I have? The Mustang was a slush bucket even with a small block, while I smoke BMWs that are 30 years newer going around corners in my Barracuda. I make all of the Euro snobs enraged at the autocross events I go to. There was a ’69 Valiant built by Mopar Action Magazine called “The Green Brick” that ran on the “One Lap Of America” all through the ’90s, with only very minimal modifications to the suspension beat Porsches, Vipers, Vettes, even a BMW that cost over a million dollars to build! That is a fact that you can look up!

    3. I had a 69 cuda 383-s with a 4spd & 8&3/4 posi w/3:55 gears. It was very, very fast. Scary fast! But, it went straight, even with the left front wheel in the air! I was always smitten with the 66-67 Charger more. I own 5 at this time. But a 67 Barracuda Droptop has entered my life & I hope to be spoiling it this next year with a resto-mod type build! I’ve owned several A-body Barracudas 65-69. Also a couple E-bodies. MOPAR OR NO CAR!!!

  9. Just a question did the 67-69 barracuda have a unibody or were they a ful frame car? Thanks for any reply!

    1. Eric> Like the A-body Valiant on which it was based, the Barracuda was unibody. The only post-1960 Chrysler car that wasn’t unitized was the Imperial, and only through 1966.

  10. How many 69 formula S barracudas were produced with a 383 4 speed in the notchback style in 69.

    1. Ninety-eight, I believe.

  11. I know I asked how many 69 barracudas were made formula S in 69 with the 383 engine & 4 speed with a 391 gear in a notchback. Thanks

    1. I have no idea — I’ve never seen a breakdown by axle ratio. Given the tiny number of 383 Formula S cars, obviously not many!

  12. how many 69 Barracuda Formula S with 383 4-speed in the fastback style were built ?

    1. I believe 331.

  13. How many 1966 Formula S were produced?

    1. That’s a good question. I’ve never seen a figure for that, I assume because the package was an option rather than a body style.

  14. have a question: we have a 67 cuda for 20 plus yrs now. We are trying to sell it and just ran the VIN #’s. The VIN runs the car as a 66 Dart. The tag says it was made in Canada. We have never made changes to the car except pull motor.. Does Canada VIN #s run different then VIN# in U.S.?


    1. I honestly don’t know, although that’s certainly possible, considering that the U.S. and Canadian lineups were different at that point. It’s an interesting question, but I don’t have anything to suggest.

      1. Thank you Aaron. I’ll keep researching

  15. Great article! I actually love reading about dismal sales figures since they translate directly to rarity. Towing my current project (a ’69 Fastback) across country turned so many heads I should have gotten kickbacks from chiropractors. People looked at it like they had never seen such a thing before and a few actually asked, “what is that?”. Mine is still the only one I’ve laid eyes on in about 10 years. By the way, I was one of those nuts back in the 80s who were drawn by the utility of the Barracuda. I did, in fact, camp in the back of my old Fastback.

  16. Barracuda Formula “S” Production totals
    1965 Formula S quantity unknown
    1965 8 cyl 41,601
    V8 273 4bbl automatic 4,505
    V8 273 4bbl 4-speed 4,874
    1966 8 cyl 25,536
    Formula S w/ 273 4bbl Auto 2,346
    Formula S w/ 273 4bbl 4-speed 2,970
    1967 Formula S
    Formula S w/ 273 4bbl 5,352
    Formula S w/ 383 4bbl 1,784
    1968 Formula S
    Formula S w/ 340 4bbl 3,917
    Formula S w/ 383 4bbl 1,279
    My favorite is the first generation of Barracuda .
    I have a each year
    64 V8 273 push-button
    65 Formula S V8 Commando 273 4 Speed
    66 Recreation Formula S V8 273 Automatic

  17. I just bought a 67 Formula S Notch Back with a 383 automatic. How do I know that it is a Formula S or were all 383’s Formula S? Also how many 383 automatic Notch Backs made in 67?

  18. Barracuda 1967, Notchback 273,4bbl, 4 speed, How many were buid? Any idea?

    1. The 273-4V was relatively, particularly in non-Formula S cars. It looks like there were only 1,036 non-Formula S ’67s with that powertrain combination. How many of those were hardtops vs. fastbacks I don’t know; the production numbers aren’t broken out that way, but it’s certainly reasonable to assume the answer is “not many.”

      1. Aaron, thanks for your ansewer. I am happy owner and driver. Do You have any good quess. I know that my Barracuda is rare but how rare?

        1. I’m sorry, I don’t know any further than that!

  19. No mention of the mod top? Cmon now

    1. Ha! A fair point, if an obscure one.

  20. My father has a 1965 plymouth barracuda and he is trying to sell it but their are buyers that want a vin check record witch we are haveing so much trouble getting it since the cuda has only 10 digits and the check site ask for 17 digit what can I do. Do any one know how can I get a vin check on my father vehicla.

    Please if you have any information on it I will apreciated.

    1. All I can suggest is that you either contact whatever vehicle report service you tried to use and ask them if they can handle a pre-1980 VIN. (They might have a different form to fill out or something.) If not, I think there are services that specifically advertise that they deal with collector cars, which might be more helpful in your situation. I have no personal experience with any of these VIN reporting services, so I can’t offer any opinions or suggestions on which ones to try. Good luck with it!

  21. What do you know about the South African barracudas? Do they have all US sheet metal etc. I own a 69 formula S SA assembled. It has a different dash- a duster/scamp one but the car is RH drive so one can expect they used a generic dash.

  22. was wondering if anybody could give me a little insight on a car that was bought by my brother, we have done a little research its a 1969 barracuda with the number matching 383, and number matching 4 speed, this is a notch back, and is all number matching, it is an a code which says its a stripe car, and it is a b5 blue car, we have ran the codes and just would like some input, seems like it was a special order car, if someone could help me out please contact me thanks.

  23. Hi all,
    Looking for a bit of info on a baracuda I came across in Mexico. It looks like about a ’67 and on the side of the fender was a decal showing 380. Since I don’t know that Chrysler ever built a 380 engine I am wondering if that could be the HP rating as I understand they came with a 380 HP 440 engine.
    Any thoughts or comments would be great. The owner wasn’t around and my Spanish is not great so I wasnt able to ask.


    1. I doubt it had a 440 (which was available in the second-generation Barracuda, albeit only on a limited basis, and probably not in Mexico). My first thought is that it’s a reference to the metric displacement of the bigger Slant Six, although in deciliters that would be more like 370 than 380.

  24. I wonder if that decal said “340”, which was a decal package used on Cudas. That era typically used diecast emblems, fewer decals.

    In Spain, there was a line of heavily modified A-bodies called Dodge 3700, so I assume that’s how Chrysler would label the /6 in the metric world.

    1. The “340” possibility would make sense; I was going by what the commenter said, so I didn’t think of that.

      I’d also assume that a 225 Slant Six would probably be called 3700 (or perhaps 370, for deciliters) in a metric market rather than 3800/380. If its metric displacement were over 3,700 cc — even, say, 3,720 cc — they might round up, as Ford did with its 302/5.0, but it’s not.

  25. Also thought I’d mention that the 1967 or 68 Chrysler shareholders annual report shows a Barracuda with the Thames river behind it. You can plainly see a right-hand steering wheel and amber rear turn signals. Evidently they made some attempt to sell these cars internationally.

    1. There were some RHD drive conversions — tests showed up in a number of British magazines around the time you mention. I don’t think they would have expected to sell a lot of them, since the Barracuda was a big, expensive, thirsty car for Europe, but I know there were some export versions. If nothing else, it would have been something eye-catching for local importers to put in the showroom window.

  26. My first car was a 64 Barracuda. It had a 273 with a two barrel carb and a four speed transmission with a Hurst shifter. I just did a full off-chassis restoration on a 65 Formula S. While going through my pile of restoration parts I located a set of rims from my 64 that I was going to use on my 65 to keep it more like original…. To my surprise the rims were 13″. I don’t remember them being 13″ but I’m positive these were the rims from the 64. The 65 had 14″ Crager Mags when I bought it. Do you know if and when the wheel size changed? Thanks

  27. Hi,
    I just bought 67 cuda fastback and this is maybe stupid but I am not sure how to see how fast I am going, have dash with : oil, temp, gas, battery and RPM and no MPH…lol…can you please help me and solve this mystery for me.
    Thank you very much

    1. Assuming you have a U.S. car (export cars, especially RHD conversions, are a more complicated matter), the leftmost dial is the speedometer, although its markings are a little confusing: It’s labeled 1–12 (or 1–15 with the optional 150 mph speedometer) rather than 10–20–30 etc.

      The rightmost binnacle has the fuel and other gauges while the center dial may be either a vacuum gauge or a rev counter (either was available). The rev counter, if there is one, is quite a bit smaller than the speedometer. Hope that helps.

  28. Don’t know where U got all of this info on the 273. My first car out of high school , 67 barracuda 273 4barrel , think it was a Carter AFB
    It could smoke even big blocks. Mustangs ? Only ran into a few of them, but they were no problem for the lil wannabe racer.

  29. DOUG,
    I have a 1969 340-s barracuda,it came with benchseat and 4 speed. Manual steering and brakes. Also the rear seat doesn’t. Fold down. It doesnt even have the handle to normally. Unlatch it.
    Ive checked for years of other formula”s”,never have i found this set up..
    Thanks for any. Info..

  30. ‘Our’ first car was Plymouth Barracuda. I was thinking that it was a ’64, but I just saw a ’64 at a car show and it was different from what we had. As I recall it was billed as one of the models that came out in mid year, but was the same as the following full year model. Supposedly, it only came in a bronze metallic paint. It did have the 273 cubic inch V8 with 2bbl carburetor and torqueflite transmission.I don’t remember that it said ‘Barracuda’ or ‘Baccaruda’ on it anywhere. So, did we have a ’63, a ’64, or you can’t tell from what I’ve said.
    Thanks for unfogging some of my gray cells.

    1. It definitely wouldn’t have said “Baccaruda” — that was an advertising joke — although if it was a ’64, it might well have said “Valiant” as well, unless someone pulled off the Valiant badges in a fit of self-consciousness. It wasn’t only available in bronze, although I think that color was fairly popular at the time.

  31. My husband drove a ’65 black and red barracuda when we first started dating. I nearly didn’t go out with him because of that car, but later I came to appreciate it and the fold down back seat.:)…Love that old car….

  32. How many 1969 Barracuda 340 formula s 4 speeds were made?

    1. Total Formula S 340 production for MY1969 was 1,839, all body styles. I don’t have a breakdown by transmission, although somebody else might.

  33. Any Chrysler A body, be it Barracuda, Dart, Duster, Valiant etc. equipped with a small block V8 is an excellent handling car by any standard , up to 2000 models and beyond. They are excellently balanced cars and anyone who says otherwise just has no skill at driving one. Valiants were successfully used as rally cars in the 1960’s. Smooth pavement my tail.

    1. Rally cars are not street cars and are generally not set up with any notable concern for ride quality. As with racing stock cars, performance in that realm is only very, very loosely comparable to a production-spec street vehicle.

  34. Not all 340 cars were formula S cars either. It was possible in those days to order a car any way you wanted and there were those who ordered their car with a base trim package but with the hot engine to create whats called a “sleeper”

  35. I know a 65 Canadian barracuda. Nowhere does it say Plymouth on it.
    Just thought interesting.

    1. The Canadian Valiant line, of which the Barracuda was part, had some interesting oddities in terms of products and, like the earliest U.S. Valiants, wasn’t branded as a Plymouth and were sold through Dodge dealers as well as Canadian Chrysler-Plymouth dealers. According to VinceC over at Curbside Classic, the Barracuda was badged simply as “Valiant Barracuda” and continued to be after U.S. Barracudas dropped the Valiant prefix.

  36. I have a 64 Cuda built April 14 with a huge cover riveted on the trans hump to clear the shifter and the floor beneath is had been sloppily cut out with a torch. The molded front carpet looks original just like the back. I read somewhere that they were called “factory hack jobs” because the Valiant in 63 had no four speed option, just the dinky three speed column shift, dash mounted push button auto and floor shift auto; so they used the floor shift auto cars for the big A833 swap.

  37. I have a 1966 Barracuda, 273 4 speed car, the question I have is the U on the fender tag stands for what? Is it special ordered car. It has a 1 under the U. If it is would it be more rare that a production line car. How can I find more info on the car. Wondering what shifter the car has in it also. Thanks

    1. The “U” just means the car is a U.S.-spec model. If I’m correctly understanding the way you’re describing the fender tag, the “1” is probably part of the paint code. David Bell has a page with some useful information on deciphering fender tags on his site.

  38. I have owned my ’65 Barracuda since 1978, when I bought it for $375, drove it home, yanked out the 273 that was running on five cylinders, and dropped in the 340 that had been in my ’66 Valiant since I built that engine in ’75. I added a 727 Torqueflite, 8.75″ rear end with 4.30 gears, and drove it like that until 2015, when it was disassembled to begin its “third life”. It now has an aluminum 433 cubic inch 3rd gen Hemi with Hilborn stack injection and dry sump oil system, Tremec 6-speed transmission with PPG sequential shift conversion, full frame, independent rear suspension including Hammerhead center section and differential cooler, Detroit Speed Alumaframe front suspension, Viking Berserker active suspension control, Alcon brakes, C&R radiator, Vintage Air, onboard fire suppression system, and a few other goodies. It will be on display at the SEMA show next week. p.s. This article states that the rear window made the Barracuda about 100 pounds heavier than the Valiant. That’s quite a trick; my Barracuda rear glass weighs 48 pounds.

    1. The 100 lb figure is not just the glass — it’s the (approximate) overall weight difference between the early Barracuda and its Valiant sibling, which is not just the backlight.

      1. I agree; the folding rear seat added the rest of the weight. I was just commenting on the inaccuracy of the article, which states “The extra weight of the glass made the Barracuda about 100 pounds (45 kg) heavier than a Valiant hardtop.”

        1. If it makes you feel better, I amended the text to “The extra weight of the glass and other body and equipment changes made the Barracuda about 100 pounds (45 kg) heavier than a comparable Valiant hardtop.”

  39. Hello, I have a 1967 barracuda, with a 318 engine, made in Mexico, in the title of property it says that it is a hardtop ?, normally in the web page, it says that it is a fastback, you will know what is the difference between one and the other ?, and you will know how many were manufactured, please if you responded to my email. thanks, best regards

    1. Gerardo,

      “Hardtop” is one of those terms with great potential to confuse because it’s sometimes simply used to describe a car with a fixed roof (rather than a convertible) or a body style with no B-pillars (the roof post immediately behind the driver’s door). The 1969 Barracuda fastback was a hardtop by both of those definitions, although generally when people talk about the Barracuda hardtop, they mean the notchback coupe body style. So, the title may not be wrong, just a little confusing.

      I don’t have any data on Mexican Barracuda production figures. The numbers I have say that for 1967, there were 30,110 of the fastback body style; I’m not sure if that includes cars assembled outside the U.S. or not. In the U.S. market, the Barracuda did not get the 318 engine in the 1967 model year, just the 273 or the bigger 383 (or the base Slant Six).

  40. Would a 340 Barracuda (or Cuda) have a 727 or 904 transmission. I am mainly interested in the second generation, 1967 – 1969 years. You know, the best ones. And, would it matter if it was a Formula “S”?

    1. I did some checking, and it appears that cars with the 273 or 318 and TorqueFlite used the 904, but Barracudas with the 340 or 383 engines got the heavy-duty 727. I believe Formula S cars with the four-barrel 273 still used the 904, so my best guess is that the 904 was close to the upper limits of its torque capacity with the 340/360 engines. Some later Mopar cars with the 2V 360 used the 904, but Chrysler may have reasonably assumed that a two-throat 360 would probably lead a more sedate life than the high-revving 340-4V engines did.

      (FYI, I took the liberty of just correcting the typos in your comment — I figured you would probably prefer that!)

      1. Aaron, thanks for correcting my typos.
        I had pretty much thought that the 340’s would use the 727. Go back maybe 20 years I’d still be quite certain of it.
        Originally, only six cylinders used to 904 but they eventually started using it behind the lower level V8’s. I believe that after the 340 was replaced by the 4 bbl.360, maybe before, the 904 was used for them. As emissions took away the amount of oomph and ways of strengthening the 904’s came about, some cost cutting was used. Heck, the 904 was not a bad transmission at all providing it wasn’t pushed beyond its limits. Trucks always used a 727.

        1. I’m not entirely sure if the 360-4V used the 904; the 360-2V did, but Chrysler may have decided the four-barrel engines merited the 727.

          One reason for the use of the 904, aside from cost, was that the heavier-duty transmission also consumed more power, due to the greater mass and friction of the heavier internal components. The Turbo Hydra-Matic faced the same issue, which was one of the reasons many GM cars switched to the TH350 or the TH200 in the seventies. I don’t know what the power consumption difference may have been between the 904 and 727, but based on other examples, it might have been as much as 5–10 horsepower. If an engine didn’t need the extra beef and greater torque capacity, that was good reason to stick with the lighter-duty model.

          1. For what it’s worth I have decided to add my two cents to the Barracuda story, this being my first(on line)participation. I am the only designer involved with the exterior design of all Barracudas.

            I’ll start with the rear window or back-lite, which shares the side view dimension with the Studebaker Avanti, but has more surface area. Glass is either pressed to shape or formed by a sag process, where the perimeter is held, the glass is heated, and sags to the appropriate shape. Although this leads to a high scrap rate, the cost savings is substantial.

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