Changing Winds: The 1934-1937 Chrysler Airflow


Engineer Paul Jaray (born Pál Járay) had a great deal in common with Edmund Rumpler. Like Rumpler, Jaray was Jewish, originally from Austria (although his family was Hungarian), but spent his early career in the fledgling German aviation industry, joining Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH (Zeppelin Airship Works Ltd.) in 1912. Although Jaray eventually became Zeppelin’s chief designer, business was slow after the war, and Zeppelin allowed him to pursue a sideline: applying aerodynamic principles to passenger cars.

Jaray’s first car, built in 1921, was the Ley T6, a tiny streamliner with a skeletal frame, not unlike the Airflow’s bridge-and-truss system. The T6’s drag coefficient was only 0.28, allowing the little car to reach a top speed of 62 mph (100 km/h) with only 20 hp (15 kW). Based on those experiments, Jaray applied for a patent in August 1922 on automobiles with streamlined bodies. It covered essentially any car whose aerodynamic form comprised one partial teardrop shape (the greenhouse) atop another (the body itself).

1934 Chrysler CU Airflow Eight sedan front 3q © 2011 Ronnie Schreiber WPC (used with permission)
1934_Chrysler_CU-AirflowEight-sedan_grille_R1934 Chrysler CU Airflow Eight sedan grille © 2011 Ronnie Schreiber WPC (used with permission)
This Chrysler CU four-door sedan, photographed at the Walter P. Chrysler Museum and sporting Ontario license plates, is a late 1934 model, identifiable by its simplified grille. Early 1934 Chrysler Airflows had 39 vertical grille bars, but later in the year, Chrysler substituted a cheaper version with only 21 bars, a change suggested by design consultant Norman Bel Geddes (apparently one of the only suggestions Chrysler actually used). Note the winged hood ornament, which has a Chrysler blue ribbon emblem at its center, and the functional engine compartment cooling louvers, seen here in their open position. (Both above photos © 2011 Ronnie Schreiber; both used with the permission of Cars in Depth and the Walter P. Chrysler Museum)

In 1923, Jaray left Zeppelin and moved to Zurich, Switzerland, where he and a business partner founded the consulting firm Stromlinen Karosserie Gessellschaft (roughly, “Streamlined Body Co.”). After his initial patent was issued in June 1927, Jaray licensed it to a number of automakers: initially German firms like Apollo and Maybach, later the Czech firm Tatra, where Jaray’s concepts became the basis of the remarkable Tatra T77 and T77a. The latter, launched in 1935, had a drag coefficient of only 0.21, better than any modern production car.

In 1932, Jaray established the Jaray Streamline Corporation of America, based in New York. Although the company developed a number of prototypes in hopes of interesting Detroit automakers (one based on a Chrysler Imperial chassis), they only managed to sell one license, to the coachbuilder Rollston.

1934 Chrysler Airflow Six CY front 3q © 1992 Richard Spiegelman (used with permission)
While all DeSoto Airflows had sixes, the only six-cylinder Chrysler Airflow was the short-lived CY Airflow Six, offered in the Canadian market in 1934. The CY was essentially a DeSoto SE (including the DeSoto’s headlights, horn grilles, and cooling louvers) fitted with CU-style bumpers, grille, and dashboard. Built for only one year, CY production totaled fewer than 500 units, most of them four-door sedans like this one. We don’t know if any were exported to Europe or other overseas markets. (Photo: “1934 Chrysler Six Airflow CY 4 door (Canadian)” © 1992 Richard Spiegelman; used with permission)

Chrysler Engineering had at least some knowledge of Jaray’s work (Owen Skelton had received a copy of one of Jaray’s articles in March 1933 from the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Lowell Brown), but it’s unclear if they were aware of his 1927 patent. Chrysler was prepared to take the matter to court, but eventually opted not to, on the advice of an independent aerodynamics consultant the company had hired as a prospective expert witness. In June 1935, Chrysler settled with Jaray out of court, agreeing to license the Jaray patent for $5,000 plus a small royalty on Airflows exported to Europe.

The Jaray Streamline Corp. pursued similar action against Pierce-Arrow (over the Silver Arrow) and several other companies, but with the Depression killing smaller automakers left and right, the suits netted very little financial return. Jaray finally gave up and dissolved his U.S. firm, although he continued to work and lecture in Europe at least into the 1960s. He died in 1974.

1934 Chrysler Airflow Imperial Custom CW front 3q © 1990 Richard Spiegelman (used with permission)
Although it sports a 1935 grille and hood, this CW Airflow Imperial Custom is actually a 1934 model, apparently built for the late Huntington Hartford, heir to the A & P supermarket chain. Chrysler offered a kit to allow dealers to install the revised grille and hood on earlier Airflows, presumably to help unload leftover 1934 models, although some first-year buyers probably requested such conversions. Converted or not, CWs are extremely rare; total production has been estimated at around 107 units. (Photo: “1934 Custom Imperial Airflow limousine” © 1990 Richard Spiegelman; used with permission)


Despite Walter Chrysler’s faith in the Airflow concept, sales remained sluggish for the rest of 1934. Total DeSoto production was 13,940, down a disheartening 31% from 1933. We’ve seen at least four different totals for the Chrysler Airflows, but the most commonly quoted figure is 11,292, fewer than 200 of which were the big CX and CW Imperials. Given the Airflow’s likely production costs — which, to our knowledge, Chrysler has never released — that can’t have been a profitable proposition. Fortunately, the strength of the other divisions, particularly Plymouth, kept the company out of the red; in fact, Chrysler posted a $9.5 million profit for the 1934 calendar year.

1935 Chrysler Airstream coupe 2-4 front 3q © 2006 Jack Whitaker (used with permission)
Except for a rare long-wheelbase version of the CZ Deluxe Eight series, 1935 Chrysler Airstreams were shorter, narrower, lower, and up to half a ton (455 kg) lighter than comparable Airflows. More importantly, they were at least $200 cheaper, model for model. Nearly 60% of 1935 Chrysler buyers opted for the less-expensive C6 Airstream Six. CZ Airstream Eights outsold Airflows, but only by about 1,500 units. (Photo: “1935 Chrysler Coupe” © 2006 Jack Whitaker; used with permission)

To placate their sales organization and unhappy dealers, DeSoto and Chrysler added new conventional models for 1935, dubbed Airstream. Sometimes credited to Raymond Dietrich (whom Walter Chrysler had hired in 1932), the Airstreams were actually designed by Phil Wright of Briggs, who had previously designed the 1933 Silver Arrow for Pierce-Arrow. Wright’s designs were done on spec; Briggs chief Ralph Roberts assembled them into an attractive bound volume, which he presented to Carl Breer. Breer’s own account suggests a certain bitterness toward the Briggs proposal, but it arrived at an opportune moment and Chrysler agreed to put the designs into production with almost no changes. The Airstreams had some streamlined design cues, but other than the corporation’s new independent front suspension system, they were largely conventional in both concept and engineering.

1935 Chrysler Airflow front 3q Bill Burris 2007 CCBYSA20
1935 Chrysler Airflow rear 3q Bill Burris 2007 CCBYSA20
Notable features of the facelifted 1935 Chrysler Airflow included a squared-off hood, a new stamped-steel grille (with a combination of die-cast and stainless steel trim), one-piece bumpers, revised cooling louvers and parking lamps, and a new hood ornament. The short-wheelbase C-1 traded the CU’s 299 cu. in. (4,894 cc) engine for the 324 cu. in. (5,302 cc) engine used in the bigger C-2 and C-3 Imperials. With a single-throat Stromberg carburetor and 6.2:1 compression, it made 115 gross horsepower (86 kW), down 7 hp (5 kW) from its smaller-displacement predecessor, but 15 lb-ft (20 N-m) more torque, now 240 lb-ft (324 N-m) at 1,200 rpm. (Front 3q and rear 3q photos above (both of which are entitled “1935 Chrysler Airflow”) © 2007 Bill Burris; both used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license)

The 1935 Airflows, introduced at the same time, sported a mild facelift, including reshaped hoods, sturdier bumpers, and new grilles based on those of the Airstreams. Although industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes, a Chrysler consultant in this period, had offered a proposal for future Airflows, Chrysler apparently used very little of it. The facelifts were primarily the work of Ray Dietrich, some of his first Chrysler designs to each production. Dietrich would also do the facelifts for the 1936 and 1937 models.

At the beginning of the year, most Airflows carried even higher prices than in 1934. The new Model SG DeSotos were up a painful $200 across the line. That proved to be a serious miscalculation, and by mid-year, price cuts left the base Chrysler Airflow Eight (now called C-1 rather than CU) a full $100 cheaper than the previous year’s cars. Nonetheless, the Airflows remained significantly more expensive than their Airstream cousins, with a predictable effect on sales.

1935 DeSoto Airflow sedan front 3q © 2008 Bill McChesney (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
1935 DeSoto Airflow sedan dashboard © 2008 Bill McChesney (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
The 1935 DeSoto SG Airflow had an attractive new hood and grille, along with revised bumpers, different cooling louvers, and a new dashboard. Unfortunately, its $1,195 price tag — cut to a still-hefty $1,015 during the model year — pitted it against eight-cylinder rivals of greater prestige. Nearly 75% of 1935 DeSoto buyers opted for the much cheaper Model SS Airstream Six. (Front 3q photo (“2445 1935 DeSoto Airflow”) and dashboard photo (“2453 1935 DeSoto Airflow”) above © 2008 Bill McChesney; both used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

Carl Breer and other defenders maintained that the Airflow was simply ahead of its time, and it soon appeared they were correct. At the Chicago World’s Fair in the summer of 1934, Briggs showed off a mockup of a sleek, rear-engined prototype developed by John Tjaarda, which was already in development as the Lincoln Zephyr. A few months after the Briggs car appeared, Bendix unveiled the one-off SWC, a streamlined, front-wheel-drive fastback sedan intended to show off the full range of Bendix automotive products. The SWC looked a great deal like the Airflow; its designer, William Ortwig, later said the resemblance was coincidental, but the Bendix car did use an off-the-shelf 1934 DeSoto grille and headlights.

All of those were concept cars, but in the spring of 1935, Volvo launched its streamlined PV36 Carioca, followed that October by the aerodynamic Peugeot 402. Both the Peugeot and the Carioca looked broadly similar to the Airflow, although they were smaller and had conventional body-on-frame construction. While Volvo corporate historian Claes Rydholm denies that the PV36, designed by former Hupp engineer Ivan Örnberg, was based on the Airflow, author Vincent Curcio says Peugeot actually licensed the Chrysler design for the 402. We were unable to confirm that assertion, but it seems unlikely, although Peugeot was certainly aware of the Airflow (and the Bendix SWC, which was demonstrated to Peugeot engineers in the fall of 1934). Some sources indicate that Peugeot did license the Jaray patent for the 402 and its derivatives, which seems more plausible; we have no information about whether Volvo did so or not. Toyota’s first automobile, the 1936 Toyoda Model AA, was definitely Airflow-inspired.

Peugeot 402 sedan front © 2006 Stahlkocher (CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported)
Although the Peugeot 402 bears a general resemblance to the Airflow, it differs significantly in both proportions and detail. Among other things, the Peugeot mounts its headlights behind the grille rather than in the nose, it has no running boards, and both its front and rear doors (which are not interchangeable) hinge at the B-pillars. We find it more attractive than the Airflow, and it was certainly more popular, selling something like 75,000 units in various iterations before the fall of France in 1940. (Photo: “Peugeot 402 grey vl” © 2006 Stahlkocher; resized 2014 by Aaron Severson and used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license)

Although the Airflow no longer looked quite so unusual, sales continued to sink. Thanks to the Airstream and the popular all-new ’35 Plymouths — now featuring Airflow-style Floating Ride — Chrysler posted a record $35 million profit for 1935, but Airflow production fell to only 7,751 Chryslers and 6,797 DeSotos.


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  1. A wonderful article. I still have some very vivid memories of the Pennsylvania AACA vintage car shows back in the 1970’s when a couple of Chrysler Airflows would show up. And definitely got noticed, unlike my personal ’37 Buick Special.

    Now, how about some follow-up! I’d love to see an article on the Lincoln Zephyr, and would especially love to see something on the Hupp Aerodynamic’s of 1934-35. The 1937 Ford wouldn’t be out of line, either. The mid-30’s were definitely a wonderful time for automotive design.

    1. I would love to do the Zephyr and the original Continental, if I can put together enough pictures. (The fact that I was unable to find a ’36 or ’37 Zephyr photo to include in this article, as a contrast with the Airflow, tells you how many I have right now..!)

  2. I’d like to second the earlier commenter, the mid ’30s to early ’40s period really was a fascinating early golden age in automotive styling, where for the first time styling really was given a high priority over the more utilitarian looks of the 20s-early 30s, even if the customers of the day didn’t always go for the more radical examples of streamlined Art Deco, as was the case with the Airflow and shark nose Grahams.

    Although I appreciate the need to jump around a bit for variety, please do consider more articles on the ’30s streamliners in the future, as it is such a fertile era. – the Cord 810/812 would be a great read.

    As an aside, I read an article a few years back about an architect or fashion designer (some creative professional) in Manhattan who had a really special custom CW restomod built, taking an original Airflow body and interior and retrofitting it with a modern drivetrain and undercarriage, apparently the owner loved the Art Deco style and was using it as a daily driver in the city. Wish I had saved the article, but as I recall, there weren’t many pictures with it, but definitely an interesting project.

    1. I’m not categorically opposed to restomods, but doing it with a car as rare as a CW Imperial seems…wrong. I don’t know if they’re on the list of capital-C Classics (if not, they ought to be), but they’re extremely rare, with a lot of unique components (dashboard, brakes, springs, driveshaft, wheels, windshield). The CW is so huge and so heavy that even with a modern drivetrain, it would be a handful in city traffic — it’s bigger and heavier than an Escalade ESV. Admittedly, if it was in sad shape to start with, restoring it would be a serious pain in the ass, but still…

  3. Very interesting as always Aaron, I had a passing knowledge of the Airflows but it is great to read about the detail – I can’t imagine more than a few current cars would warrant the same attention!

    I saw a 1934 Airflow last year (with flat camera batteries!) and I remember previously one of the later model ones with what was quite evidently a tacked-on traditional grille. Looking at the photos perhaps what made the car look so jarring is the horizontal line of the hood which gives the optical illusion that the nose of the car is higher than the cowl, and I find the 6cyl cars better looking because the shorter nose lessens that impact. On the point that aero design per se was not sales-proof perhaps a slight taper for a less bulbous appearance, and wider-set headlights, would have made a difference?

    Rob it would be interesting to hear more about that car too.

    1. John,

      I hadn’t thought about the nose seeming higher than the cowl, but looking at the photos again, I see what you mean. It’s exacerbated by the position of the hood ornament, which gives the tip of the nose a bit of a ‘ski jump’ flair, even on the ’34s, where the original hood line actually slopes downward quite a bit. I imagine that is one of the factors that contributes to what I think of as a ‘stubby’ look to the whole car (especially sedans). The 1934 CU is quite a big car, but its rounded contours make it look smaller than it actually is, an effect that only the really long wheelbases of the CX and CW Imperials offset to any great degree.

      Deciding to mount the headlights in the leading edges of the body sides, rather than the fenders, was really limiting, both in spacing and light size. I don’t know why they didn’t mount the lights in the front fenders, as John Tjaarda did with the Zephyr. (The production Zephyr’s front end was mostly redone by Bob Gregorie, but the fender-mounted lights were on the original Briggs prototype.) I think the headlights of the ’36-’38 Zephyrs still look a bit awkward, but their spacing makes the Lincoln look lower and wider than the Airflow, even though it really isn’t.

      I imagine these are all reflections of the fact that the Airflow was [i]engineered[/i] more than actually [i]designed[/i]. The role of the stylists appears to have been to decorate the shape given them by the engineers, in which they had little if any say.

  4. Very nice article, Mr. Severson! I’m the president of the Airflow Club of America and I happened to find this site while searching for some other material. It’s nice to see a recent article about the Airflow. We are a small (425+) member club. We just had our National Meet in Durango, Colorado and I drove my 1935 C2 (Imperial) from Seattle WA. There are not many 76 year old cars which cruise smoothly down the road at 75 mph in overdrive. I did the return trip (1,300 miles) in two days. I own a 35 Packard, a 37 Cord and numerous other cars of the era and none can match the “modern” ride and drive of an Airflow.

    You are right, Engineering called the shots when the Airflow was designed. It was truly radical. Besides being quiet and smooth at 75 mph, it has gobs of art deco everywhere.

    The 6 cylinder cars (all DeSotos) are true to the Airflow spirit, but after riding in a prototype, Chrysler wanted an Airflow with his name on it. The Imperial Coupes are very well proportioned with six extra inches behind the B pillar.

    I am not opposed to rods, but if a CW was rodded it would break my heart so don’t verify it, please!

    In 1934, Chrysler did offer a retrofit grill which replaced the pure “waterfall” look with a more traditional grill – as was found on the ’35 models. With each passing year, as sales never materialized, Chrysler tried to make the front end look more conventional.

    Visit the website at Check out the video of the Airflow being pushed off a cliff and driving away (in the Library section). If anyone would like to see an Airflow close up, let me know and I’ll link you up with the closest members.

    Thanks again for a nice article!

    1. Frank,

      Thanks for the kind words!

      I’ve seen the story that the Airflow was originally intended [i]only[/i] as a six-cylinder DeSoto in a number of secondary sources. Do you have an original source for that account? As it stands, I’m afraid I’m rather skeptical of it.

      It’s true that the 1932 Trifon Special prototype was a DeSoto-size, six-cylinder car, and Carl Breer does say that he and Oliver Clark started with a six-cylinder model in laying out the packaging for the Airflow; they wanted to determine the minimum dimensions necessary to achieve both the aerodynamic profile and minimum passenger space they were looking for. However, Breer makes no mention of intending to [i]only[/i] offer the Airflow as a six, and his account indicated that the decision about which brands would offer it was made later. All he says on that subject is that they decided it would be sold by Chrysler and DeSoto; he says nothing about any plan to market it as a DeSoto-only product.

      Breer does say that Walter P. Chrysler was very excited about introducing the Airflow to celebrate Chrysler’s 10th anniversary. Based on Breer’s description of WPC’s enthusiasm for the project, it’s hard to conceive Chrysler [i]not[/i] wanting an Airflow with his name on it — if somebody suggested otherwise, I’m not sure who or why. From a business standpoint, certainly, offering the Airflow only as a DeSoto six wouldn’t have made much sense. The development costs were undoubtedly high, and DeSoto’s annual volume was not; it hadn’t topped 40,000 units since before the Crash. Also, even if there were some original plan to only offer it as a six, why didn’t the U.S. Chrysler line get the CY?

      Now, given the antipathy some of the corporation’s management apparently had toward the Airflow project, it’s entirely possible that getting the individual presidents to accept it was quite a battle. I suppose it’s possible that DeSoto president Byron Foy was less opposed than his colleagues; I really don’t know. However, my suspicion is that if there was a debate over who would offer the Airflow, it was more a matter of internal resistance than any overarching plan of what the Airflow should be.

      It would certainly be fair to call the six the baseline Airflow, since the larger eight-cylinder cars were created by splicing additional sections into the body panels and frame, but I don’t know that that means the bigger cars were somehow an afterthought. From Breer’s account, I think it was just easier to start with the smaller version, to establish the minimum package dimensions. That makes sense — if you know you have acceptable passenger room on the shorter wheelbase, it’s easy to make it bigger, whereas if you base your engineering on the larger version, it’s harder to scale it down without compromising utility space.

      If someone can point me toward a primary source for the DeSoto-only story — first-person accounts of the meeting where it was decided, etc. — I’ll happily accept that, but otherwise, I’m inclined to think that story may just be a misinterpretation of Carl Breer’s account, one that has, as they say, grown in the telling.

      I wholly agree on the CW. I’m not keen on the idea of heavily customizing the Airflow to begin with — it’s relatively rare, of obvious historical interest, and already pretty wild looking without any help — and the idea of cutting up a CW is the sort of thing that gives historians night terrors!

  5. Aaron,
    In the text on page one, it states that the Rumpler Tropfenwagen was powered by a 2.5 W6. Is this a misprint of V6? Or was this a prelude to to todays W8 Volkswagen?

    1. Nope, that’s not a typo. The early Tropfenwagen had a 2,580 cc Siemens & Halske engine with three banks of two cylinders. I don’t think I’ve ever seen a picture of it, but I imagine it was rather bulky.

      1. while we are on the subject of the Tropfenwagen, Ferdinand Porsche had nothing to do with its development, as he was employed by Daimler, not Benz. The two companies formed an association in 1924, formally merged, forming Mercedes-Benz in 1926. Integrating the engineering staff of the two former rivals took a while, with the Benz faction eventually gaining ascendancy.

        1. Thanks — I looked back through my notes and saw how that error probably cropped up, but you’re right and I’ve amended the text.

  6. another expertly written and beautifully illustrated article on these avant garde art deco cars that were way ahead of their time in terms of both styling and engineering-please do an article on the history of De Soto

  7. I own a 1935 Chrysler Airstream c-6 Coupe.
    I’ve been able to determine thru internet research that there were 1975 like models made. What I can’t find is how many of them were standards and how many were deluxe. Does anyone know or know how I can find this info.


    1. Dennis,

      The information I have indicates that the six-cylinder Airstream C-6 models weren’t grouped into standard and deluxe versions, only the CZ Airstream Eight. Your number is what I show for business coupe production, as well.

      1. Thank you for the reply that’s interesting to hear, but I’m still confused. I’ve seen, what I believe are photo’s of some C-6’s with parking lights on top of the front fenders & horns mounted thru the stainless grill work on the fenders below the headlites on ea. side of the addition these cars have 2 windshield wipers. In addition to that I’ve seen photos of C-6’s with no parking lites on the fenders – grill work on the lower fenders
        with no horns & also a single wiper. I’m confused about the differences, could it be as simple as diff. options? What are your thoughts.

        1. The Deluxe models were introduced after the start of the 1935 model year. At least on CZs, the dual horns were initially standard and then were deleted on non-Deluxe Eights when the Deluxe was introduced; the horn layout you describe sound like the early and late non-Deluxe CZ arrangements. Chrysler’s factory production figures don’t distinguish between Deluxe and non-Deluxe CZs, probably because of the midyear change. Now, I don’t know anything about a Deluxe version of the six-cylinder cars — all of that applies to the Eights.

          Is it possible that some of the confusing pictures you’ve seen were actually mislabeled CZs? A quick image search just now revealed at least once set of photos labeled as C-6s that are pretty clearly late CZ Deluxes (they even have the winged "8" badges on the catwalks) and there was definitely that variation with the eight-cylinder cars. I could see the parking lamps being a dealer or owner add-on, but the horns do seem like a production variation.

          1. I realize this is a long shot but here goes. I inherited my fathers 1935 AirStream C6. It has spare tires in each fender, 2 windshield wipers, a luggage rack and the back of the passenger seat raises up like in a business coupe. Any help clarifying what series it is would be appreciated.

  8. Finally! The story of the Airflow in enough detail for me to understand these beautiful machines. Thank you for this piece!

    They may not have sold well, but their influence was certainly felt around the world. You mention the Volvo Carioca and the <i>Fuseau Sochaux</i> Peugeots (the last of which were made in 1949!), but there is also the first “proper” car from the land of the rising sun: the 1936 Toyota AA. None survived, so Toyota actually built one for their museum in the 1990s.

    Along with Cords, Marmons, Franklins, shark-nose Grahams and the Zephyr, these Chryslers are the epitome of 30s American cars for me.

    1. I must admit had always been a little skeptical of the Toyota link, but the 2012 edition of Toyota’s official history specifically says the Toyoda Model AA took its inspiration from the Airflow. It wasn’t just the styling either; the engineers at Toyoda (not spun off of the parent company as Toyota Motor until 1937) recognized and sought to emulate what Breer and crew had done with the Airflow’s weight distribution and ride. Very interesting.

      1. I should add that while the Model AA was the first Toyota automobile, it was NOT the first Japanese car. The first Japanese-built four-wheeled automobile was made in 1904 and the first gasoline-powered car was in 1907. However, people really didn’t have enough money to create a sustainable domestic passenger car industry until much later. According to the numbers I’ve seen, it wasn’t until 1951 that Japanese companies built more than 2,000 passenger cars in a single calendar year.

  9. There is a rather long promotional video of the Airflow made by Chrysler in the mid-1930s that discusses its design and features, and includes a rather dramatic test rollover with a live driver. The roof of the vehicle remains completely intact as do all windows, although one rear door came open (they lacked interlocking door latches that have been required since the late 1960s). If you have not seen this, you should get a copy. I may have a video version if you cannot find one elsewhere. This video provides dramatic evidence that manufacturers could have provided good rollover protection in more recent decades without the advanced materials now used to meet FMVSS 216, and saved thousands of lives in rollovers (particularly of SUVs).

    1. I’ve never seen the film, but I’ve heard about some of the stunts Chrysler did to demonstrate the Airflow’s rigidity and safety, including pushing one off a cliff. It was partly done to counter rumors that the Airflow wasn’t very strong, perhaps because people heard that its inner skeleton was not all that rigid by itself. (The bridge-and-truss skeleton wasn’t intended to be self-supporting, but once welded to the body panels, the whole thing was extremely stout.)

  10. Though only slightly connected to the article, is it known whether other more viable engines (e.g. inline, V-angle, Boxer, etc) were considered for the Chrysler Star Car in place of the five-cylinder radial-engine?

    It seems like a number of otherwise production worthy designs during that period up til the end of WW2 were fatally compromised by radial or other experimental engines.

    Also interested to know where one can find more information on Chrysler’s post-war small car project (including the name), which was intended to challenge the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Light Car project that eventually became the Vedette.

    1. To your first question, as far as I know, there were not. The “Star Cars” were FWD (if you look up the SIA article “MoPar’s Star Cars” on the Hemmings site, you’ll see some photos of the powertrain layout), which, like some early postwar FWD cars, was predicated on fitting the engine in a relatively short space ahead of the front axle. Short of the radial engine, that configuration would probably have dictated either an I-2, a V-4 or an H-4, with the latter probably being the most practical choice. Had Chrysler succeeded in finding overseas licensing interest, they might have gone that route, since for a non-experimental project, it’s hard to see a manufacturer considering the complexity of the five-cylinder radial worthwhile for an 1,100cc engine.

      The postwar concept you’re probably thinking of is Project A-106. I don’t have much detailed info on it; it was designed around an H-4 engine, but I don’t know the engine’s specifications beyond that.

      1. Indeed, the radial and other experimental engines considered by rivals were blind alleys.

        Agree about the production versions of the Star Car being powered by H-4 engines, though why didn’t Chrysler consider such an idea themselves instead of seeking out overseas licensing interests?

        Regarding Chrysler’s efforts in seeking overseas interest in the UK, know the likes of Stafford Gripps and others in the post-war Attlee wanted to establish a British people’s car project, supporting the stillborn efforts of Roy Fedden and Denis Kendall in setting up such their own car projects.

        Could an H-4 powered Star Car have remained in production after WW2 let alone achieve similar success to another similarly styled model whose engine layout / etc was at the rear?

        1. As far as I know, the Star Cars that were built were primarily experimental rather than development prototypes. With experimental designs, it’s not uncommon for a mule or set of mules to examine several different technologies at once, even if there isn’t any serious intent to build a production model that way. While an H-4 engine would probably have been a more promising design, it was no less radical for Chrysler in terms of actual production (having no relationship at all to any existing engine design), but less novel strictly from an engineering standpoint, offering less to be learned from experimentation. At that point, there wouldn’t have been a market for such a car in the U.S., at least in that form, and Chrysler didn’t have the export organization or local dealerships to offer it outside North America in meaningful quantities, especially given the complex tariffs and import duties involved in pre-EEC multinational productions.

          When the project began, Walter Chrysler was very enthusiastic about the Airflow and basically showing off what Chrysler engineering was capable of. Given the timing, my assumption is that the Star Cars amounted to dabbling in what they might do if they took some of the concepts involved in the Airflow a step or two further: FWD and a compact, easily removable powertrain. I can’t see Chrysler putting it into production in that form, but if the drivetrain and radial engine had shown promise AND if the Airflow had been a big hit, some of those concepts might have shown up in an Airflow successor. However, the Airflow was not a big hit, Chrysler management started getting nervous about these pie-in-the-sky engineering fancies and lost any interest in building such a thing. I think the effort to find a British licensee was at least partly a flailing attempt to recoup some of the substantial investment Chrysler had already made in the project rather than a coherent marketing strategy, which, combined with the timing, may have been why it didn’t pan out.

          I don’t know that comparative engineering strengths are a reliable predictor of commercial success. Some advanced designs fail despite their strengths, lacking other important characteristics like after-sale service or just being too costly to build. Some rudimentary or old-fashioned designs succeed because they’re reliable, familiar, or just well-marketed. So, it’s hard to judge potential success simply based on specifications without a sense of who a product would be marketed to, how well, and for what price.

          1. In the case of the Airflow, were there other more attractive styling proposals that Chrysler considered which could have worked in retrospect?

            Guess the following is admittingly a fantasy, it would have been interesting if a production worthy Star Car formed the basis for Chrysler’s UK division instead of them later acquiring Rootes.

          2. Well, as the article explains, the Airflow — and presumably the Star Cars — were primarily engineering designs, not styling ones. The role of Chrysler Art & Colour was to decorate the pre-approved shape (which they did pretty well, in my view), not to decide what it would look like; what today we’d probably call “detail styling.” Judging by the photos I’ve seen of the Airflow prototypes, the alternatives the engineers developed were arguably worse, although there’s a coupe design with a low-slung roof that would have pleased postwar customizers. Could actual stylists have come up with ways to apply the Airflow’s aerodynamic concepts in a more visually appealing way, and potentially on a smaller scale? Sure; the Peugeot was not an unattractive car for its day. Did Chrysler do that? Not so far as I know.

            Another significant consideration is that I remain convinced that part of the reason for the Airflow’s mediocre sales performance was that the Airflow cars were quite expensive. That’s an issue that would likely have affected the viability of something like the Star Car, especially vis-à-vis contemporary Ford of England offerings.

  11. What a first class article! Too bad the looks of the Airflow were so artless and indeed clumsy, and I say that as an engineer. Certainly the cars were expensive to produce, but a little exterior grace would perhaps have saved the sales day. You cover that aspect well in a reply comment above.

    On the little radial engine FWD project, I was unaware of it until now. So the radial multibank Sherman tank engine that Chrysler produced in WWII makes sense with its five 6 cylinder blocks. Not the same crank arrangement, but they knew it was a doable project and likely to succeed without protracted development time. Too bad for them that Ford produced a monster rival DOHC GAA V8 that eclipsed it. Surely the Ford had the most advanced cylinder head design for decades afterwards, a tour-de-force. Jags, Alfas, Mercedes and F1 engines did not have a narrow valve angle, direct-acting bucket tappets from the cam, and a central spark plug in a DOHC four-valve pentroof head, until Duckworth reinvented it for the FVA/DFV. Most engines have similar layouts today bar bucket tappets. The RR Merlin looks positively antediluvian by comparison.

  12. I’m surprised that the cars stayed so expensive for so long; once Chrysler realized that the development costs were going to be lost, one would have hoped that they could sell the cars at a little above cost, keep the volume up, and make the most of a bad situation. I’ve heard that a typical modern car wholesales for about double its manufacturing cost in the first year of production, so, assuming that the ratio was in the same neighborhood, there should have been room to bring the price at least inline with the Airstream models, which might have generated more volume. I’m not sure exactly why the production costs of such a unitized car were higher than for a body-on-frame design; maybe welding technology had a ways to go before they’d be on par. Certainly, unitized cars were competitive with body-on-frame designs by the mid 1950s, but I’m sure the manufacturing process was more streamlined by that time.
    One thing, other than styling, that seemed possibly premature on these models was the placement of the engine directly over the drive wheels; with no power steering I’d expect that would make these cars a hand-full to drive. Also, with skinny 1930s bias-ply tires, I wonder how the engine placement affected under-steer. The gradual puling-in of the front wheels that ultimately had them protruding into the passenger space by the late 1970s was made practical by the standardization of power steering, better suspensions and radial tires.

    1. The issue, vis-à-vis cost, is not simply the cost of materials and labor, but the cost of tooling and production facilities. If something can’t be build on existing assembly lines with existing tools and equipment, the cost of its special facilities has to be amortized over the run of the model or models that do use those facilities. (There are different ways to do that, but it has to be done somehow and factored into the overall P&L for a model line.)

      Part of the reason unitized cars were more expensive is that the nature of unit construction means more new tooling and/or tooling changes for each new model or model change. A lot of the focus of postwar development on unit bodies has been on finding ways to spread those costs around by creating ranges of different products that share certain big, costly subassemblies (such as the cowl/scuttle structure or the floorpan), but doing that requires time, planning, and a commitment to continue to build products in those ways.

      Shifting weight forward does unarguably promote understeer, although there were very, very few cars of that era that had much in the way of cornering ability, and “ease of handling” meant something rather different than “handling ability.” The Airflow cars had high steering ratios that made for lots of wheel-winding, not unlike postwar American cars without power steering. If you’ve ever driven an American car of the sixties without power steering, the steering typically isn’t that heavy (less so, often, than a European or Japanese subcompact of the seventies or eighties without power steering), but it does require a lot of cranking to change directions, which imparts a feeling of vagueness to the action. By thirties standards, that wasn’t necessarily considered a terrible thing, and slow steering that was not very reversible could be a relief on rough roads.

      1. Thanks for the quick moderation and reply! It brought back memories of learning to drive on my father’s 1975 Malibu, which despite being only “mid size” weighed 3,700 pounds without an automatic, power steering or power brakes. The lack of power steering, with 7 turns lock-to-lock, was the worst omission of the three. The car, shipped that way by accident (long story), was an interesting experience, but I’m glad they don’t make cars that size without power steering these days.
        PS: I didn’t say it the first time around in my haste to make my points as concisely as possible, but this was a great article. I’ve learned a lot from this site.

        1. Thanks!

          The lack of power steering is certainly a headache by modern standards, and it’s not difficult to understand why automakers generally compromised with non-power steering ratios requiring a bazillion turns lock-to-lock. Even something like an early Honda Civic, which weighed well under a ton dripping wet and had steering ratios giving something in the realm of four turns lock-to-lock, can be a real bicep-builder when trying to parallel park! Avoiding that was a significantly bigger concern for U.S. automakers than were quickness or precision of response, which in any case were not exactly strong points of the large majority of prewar cars. With a prewar sports car (or something like a Morgan that is functionally a prewar design regardless of actual date of manufacture), the combination of low ride height, relatively quick-ratio steering, minimal curb weight, and stiff springs made for more responsive handling, but you paid a heavy price in ride quality and steering weight, and for all the masochism involved, actual developed cornering power was still pretty modest. It’s no great surprise that the average American buyer’s response to that sort of thing was, “Ugh, no thanks.”

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