Changing Winds: The 1934-1937 Chrysler Airflow


If it had been strictly up to the engineers, the Airflows probably wouldn’t have arrived until the 1935 model year, perhaps even later. However, the 10th anniversary of the first Chrysler was fast approaching and Walter Chrysler wanted to show off the new car at the New York Auto Show in January 1934.

1934 Chrysler Model CU Airflow Eight front 3q Chrysler Historical Collection
An early press photo of the 1934 Chrysler Model CU Airflow Eight. The CU sedan was 207.1 inches (5,260 mm) long, 70 inches (1,778 mm) tall, and 70.5 inches (1,791 mm) wide, riding a 122.8-inch (3,120mm) wheelbase; curb weight was over 4,000 lb (1,830 kg). Four-door sedans accounted for most of the 8,389 CU Airflows sold in 1934, but there was also a four-door Town Sedan (with no rear quarter windows), as well as a two-coupe and the two-door Brougham, which had the sedan’s profile and rear clip, but the coupe’s longer doors. There were no convertibles, roadsters, or phaetons as the Airflow’s unitized construction precluded open body styles. (Photo circa 1934, copyright © FCA US LLC – Historical Services; used with permission)

Part of the urgency may have stemmed from reports of a secret GM prototype called the Albanita, which GM Engineering had begun testing at the corporate proving grounds in Milford, Michigan, in the spring of 1933. The Albanita was a streamlined, midsize sedan, slightly smaller than the Trifon Special and sporting several features later introduced on production Chevrolets, including an all-steel Turret Top and vent windows. The GM car rode an unusual backbone chassis and was powered by a Ford flathead V8.

Chrysler was almost certainly aware of the Albanita; GM engineer Ollie Schjolin, the project director, frequently had to chase away various auto industry observers prowling outside the Milford proving grounds. However, Chrysler may not have realized that the Albanita was only an engineering testbed that GM Engineering was using to evaluate the backbone frame and two different types of independent suspension. Some GM engineers believed that the Albanita prompted Chrysler to rush the Airflow into production, fearing that their thunder was about to be stolen.

Since they required entirely new tooling and equipment, the production Airflows were undoubtedly expensive to build, driving up their retail prices. Chrysler management decided to introduce the new models in the more-expensive DeSoto and Chrysler brands, although there were tentative plans to add Dodge and Plymouth versions later. Carl Breer and research chief Ken Lee also started work on a compact with front-wheel drive and an unusual 67 cu. in. (1,091 cc), five-cylinder radial engine, intended either for export markets or as a possible economy model for North America.

1934 Chrysler CW Airflow Imperial Custom front 3q Chrysler Historical Collection
The most expensive 1934 Airflow was the big Chrysler Model CW Airflow Imperial Custom Eight, which cost over $5,000 — comparable to a Cadillac V-12, and more expensive than any Packard Twelve except the rare factory customs. Built by LeBaron, the CW had many unique features, including a curved, one-piece windshield (the first on any American production car); its own dashboard; bigger doors; larger wheels, springs, and brakes; a bigger clutch, radiator, and fuel tank; bumpers with four horizontal bars, rather than three; and a 385 cu. in. (6,306 cc) straight eight with nine main bearings and 150 gross horsepower (112 kW). The CW was about 4 inches (10 cm) wider than any other Airflow and stretched a mammoth 233.1 inches (5,920 mm) overall, with a curb weight of over 6,000 lb (2,730 kg). (Photo circa 1934, copyright © FCA US LLC – Historical Services; used with permission)

The smallest and cheapest U.S. Airflow would be the DeSoto Model SE, offered in four body styles, powered by a 242 cu. in. (3,958 cc) flathead six. A Chrysler Airflow Six, the CY, would be offered only in Canada, sharing its 115.5-inch (2,934mm) wheelbase and engine with the DeSoto; six-cylinder U.S. Chryslers would retain conventional styling and engineering. The smallest U.S.-market Chrysler Airflow, the CU Airflow Eight, would be offered in the same body styles as the DeSoto, but on a 122.8-inch (3,120mm) wheelbase with a 299 cu. in. (4,894 cc) straight eight.

Above that would be two Airflow Imperial Eight series, the CV and CX, riding either a 128-inch (3,251mm) or 137.5-inch (3,492 mm) wheelbase and using a stroked 324 cu. in. (5,301 cc) eight. At the top of the line would be the massive CW Airflow Imperial Custom Eight, riding a 146.5-inch (3,721mm) wheelbase and available as either an eight-passenger sedan or limousine, with or without blind quarter panels. To cope with their three-ton mass, all CWs would be powered by the big 385 cu. in. (6,306 cc) nine-bearing eight first introduced on the CG Imperial in 1931.

Most of the major stampings for Airflow bodies were made by Budd, although Chrysler itself manufactured the complex front clips, and the CW Imperials were built as semi-customs by the coachbuilder LeBaron, which Briggs had owned since 1927.

Despite the proliferation of wheelbases and body styles, all Airflows had a remarkable degree of commonality, surpassing even GM’s new A-B-C-D bodies. The Chrysler CU, for example, shared the same roof panel and rear clip as the short-wheelbase DeSoto and Chrysler CY, with welded-in extensions to the floorpan and side stampings ahead of the firewall to allow room for the longer straight-eight engines. The Imperials added more welded-in sections to create their longer wheelbases. All sedans shared the same rear clip, while all coupes shared their own tail section. Perhaps the most ingenious trick was the use of interchangeable doors, allowing Chrysler to create five different door configurations with only two sets of basic tooling. Such commonality helped to reduce production costs, offsetting some of the expense of unitized construction.

1934 DeSoto Airflow sedan front 3q high Chrysler Historical Collection
The most popular Airflow was the 1934 DeSoto Model SE four-door sedan, which accounted for 11,713 sales — more than 20% of all Airflow production. The SE was shorter than the eight-cylinder Chrysler CU, 193 inches (4,902 mm) long on a 115.5-inch (2,934mm) wheelbase. All of the difference was between the firewall and the front axle; SE and CU bodies were basically identical aft of the cowl. Note the fabric roof insert; until the mid-thirties, even “all-steel” closed bodies generally had fabric roofs to avoid drumming. It was replaced in 1936 by a bolt-in steel insert. (Photo circa 1934, copyright © FCA US LLC – Historical Services; used with permission)

While their engines and three-speed gearboxes (synchronized in second and third gears) were largely conventional, the Airflows introduced an important new mechanical feature: an automatic overdrive. Invented by Rex Keller and manufactured by Borg-Warner’s Warner Gear division, the overdrive unit was essentially a two-speed rear axle. When engaged via a dashboard switch, a centrifugal governor shifted automatically into the axle’s 0.70 overdrive ratio whenever speeds exceeded 40 to 45 mph (64 to 72 km/h), shifting back if speed dropped below 25 mph (40 km/h). Unlike the Columbia unit popular for Fords and Lincolns a few years later, there was no automatic ‘kickdown’ to direct drive.

Carl Breer later admitted the overdrive was an afterthought, added when production Airflows proved to be significantly heavier and thirstier than originally intended. In 1934, the overdrive was combined with freewheeling, which automatically disengaged the clutch whenever the driver lifted completely off the throttle. (The freewheeling feature was dropped in 1935 — some U.S. states were beginning to outlaw it, concerned about its deleterious effect on engine braking — but Chrysler’s brochures listed it as standard on Imperials as late as 1936.)


While the Airflow entered pilot production by December 1933, ramp-up was very slow, and only about 60 cars had been built by early January. Nonetheless, the Airflow made its scheduled debut on the main stage of the New York Auto Show on January 6, after weeks of teaser advertisements in major magazines.

1934 Chrysler Airflow CU front 3q © 2010 Rex Gray (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
The 1934 Chrysler CU Airflow had a 299 cu. in. (4,894 cc) straight eight, making 122 hp (91 kW) and 225 lb-ft (304 N-m) of torque on 6.5:1 compression. The Airflow was one of the first American cars with a front-opening ‘alligator’ hood; the body sides extend all the way to the nose, allowing them to accommodate the headlights. Integrated headlights were quite novel in 1934, although Chrysler had to add separate parking/passing lamps because the main beams were a bit too small to meet state rules for minimum headlight size. (Photo: “1934 Chrysler Airflow sdn – blue – fvl” © 2010 Rex Gray; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

The Airflow made quite an impression even on jaded auto show regulars. Streamlined show cars were increasingly common in the early thirties — the spectacular Pierce Silver Arrow had debuted in 1933, and Buckminster Fuller’s wild three-wheel Dymaxion was parked out front at the 1934 show after Chrysler arranged to displace Fuller from the main stage. However, the Airflows were full-fledged production models, aimed (excepting the big Imperials) at the conservative middle-class market. Some show goers were entranced; others were simply appalled. When the independent Market Research Corp. of America asked visitors to name the best- and worst-looking cars in the show, the Airflow topped both lists. Like the “coming or going” postwar Studebakers and Ford’s Edsel, the Airflow became the butt of many jokes, although the DeSoto version won top honors at the Monte Carlo Concours d’Elegance in both 1934 and 1935.

1934 Chrysler Airflow CU rear 3q Rex Gray © 2010 (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
Rear fender skirts were standard on all production Airflows, but whitewall tires and wheel trim rings were extra, although commonly specified. The three-bar bumpers (four-bar on CW Imperials) were attractive, but dented easily. On U.S. cars, sturdier bumpers were added in 1935, although CWs and some export cars retained the original bumpers through 1936. An external spare was standard on 1934–1935 Airflow sedans. (Photo: “1934 Chrysler Airflow sdn – blue – rvr” © 2010 Rex Gray; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

While Chrysler sales reps left the New York show with thousands of advance orders, the company was initially able to fill only a handful of them. Airflow production didn’t really get up to speed until almost three months after the show, during which time many frustrated customers either opted for the cheaper, more orthodox-looking Chrysler CA and CB Sixes or took their business elsewhere.

Customers who did receive early-production Airflows were not necessarily any happier. The Airflow’s design was basically sound, but its manufacture involved many new assembly techniques, and teething problems were inevitable. In his memoir, Carl Breer downplayed those issues, but his son Fred later recalled Breer reading the many angry letters from disgruntled owners and Chrysler dealers about the many failings of the early production cars. Most of those problems were addressed quickly enough, but they did nothing for the new car’s reputation, nor did rumors about the Airflow’s lack of structural integrity.

1934 DeSoto Airflow coupe front © 2008 Bill McChesney (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
The 1934 DeSoto Airflow had unique headlights, larger than those of the Chrysler models, and small grilles beneath the lights for the horns, deleted in 1935. Both DeSoto and Chrysler Airflows had unusual — and no doubt expensive — front windows with inset vent windows that could be swung out in the normal fashion (with or without lowering the side window) or rolled down along with the entire window and frame. (Photo: “2860 1934 DeSoto Airflow” © 2008 Bill McChesney; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

For those willing to wait — and to embrace its controversial looks — the Airflow offered excellent performance. Even the six-cylinder DeSoto was capable of around 85 mph (136 km/h), not bad for a 3,600 lb (1,630 kg) car with only 100 gross horsepower (75 kW). With the optional overdrive, racing driver Harry Hartz averaged a commendable 21.4 mpg (11 L/100 km) in an AAA-supervised run from New York to San Francisco. The eight-cylinder Chrysler CU, meanwhile, could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) in a bit over 20 seconds, lively for the time, with a top speed of over 90 mph (145 km/h). A CV Imperial coupe, also driven by Hartz, set more than 70 production car speed records at Bonneville in mid-1934, hitting 95.7 mph (154.1 km/h) in the flying mile and then averaging over 18 mpg (12.9 L/100 km) between Los Angeles and New York City. All these were excellent figures for any full-size mid-thirties automobile.

Such speed and economy came at no sacrifice in comfort. Although outward visibility left something to be desired, Airflows were quite roomy. Even the front seats could seat three abreast where conventional Chryslers of the period were a little tight even for two. With their ample weight and slow steering, no Airflow was particularly nimble, but they handled with composure and their reasonably tight turning circle aided low-speed maneuverability. As advertised, the Airflow’s “Floating Ride” was superb, rivaling even some IFS-equipped contemporaries.

1934 DeSoto Airflow coupe dash (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
1934 DeSoto Airflow coupe engine (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
Top: Overdrive was standard on Chrysler Airflow Imperials and Imperial Customs, but it was initially a $35 option on Chrysler CU and DeSoto models. The paper tag on the dashboard of the ’34 is the original instruction card, which warns that the clutch should be disengaged before pressing the overdrive button, and that it should not be engaged at speeds over 45 mph (72 km/h). Bottom: All DeSoto Airflows and the Canadian Chrysler CY had a 242 cu. in. (3,958 cc) L-head straight six, rated at 100 gross horsepower (75 kW) with a 6.2:1 compression ratio. On non-Airflow Chrysler Sixes, the same engine had 5.2:1 compression and 93 horsepower (69 kW), with the higher-compression head available optionally. (Dash photo (“2566 1934 DeSoto Airflow”) and engine photo (“2562 1934 DeSoto Airflow”) above © 2008 Bill McChesney; both used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

Unfortunately, even when Airflows finally became available in quantity that spring, sales were well below expectations. Aside from the styling, the major sticking point was the prices, which started some 20–25% higher than the conventionally engineered models the Airflows replaced. The DeSoto Model SE Airflow, for instance, cost up to $330 more than the 1933 Model SD, making it roughly the same price as the eight-cylinder Model CF that DeSoto had dropped two years earlier due to lack of demand. The Chrysler CU Airflow Eight, at $1,345, was more expensive than most 1933 CQ Imperials. The U.S. economy was better in 1934 than it had been in 1932, but not that much better.

The Airflow’s lackluster sales provoked sharp divisions among Chrysler management. The sales organization, then headed by Joseph W. Frazer (later of Willys-Overland and Kaiser-Frazer fame), blamed the weak business on the Airflow’s quirky looks and wanted to see it replaced, or at least supplemented, by conventional models. Even some of the engineering staff agreed. Carl Breer naturally defended the Airflow, as did Walter Chrysler, who called it the car of the future, resisting efforts by DeSoto and Chrysler managers to kill it.

1934 DeSoto Airflow coupe side Bill McChesney (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
1934 DeSoto Airflow coupe rear 3q Bill McChesney (CC BY 2.0 Generic)
The sleek fastback coupe is arguably the best-looking Airflow, particularly in profile. Coupe tails taper a bit more than those of the sedans, so Chrysler initially claimed five-passenger seating for the coupes rather than six. The doors of the coupes are longer than the front doors of the DeSoto SE, Chrysler CU, and CV Imperial sedans, but the bigger CX Imperial sedans and limos used coupe doors in front to match their longer wheelbases. The CW Imperial Custom used the coupe doors both front and rear, with an extra section welded in below the bottom hinge line of each door to allow a taller door opening. (Side view photo (“2861 1934 DeSoto Airflow”) and rear 3q view photo (“2866 1934 DeSoto Airflow”) above © 2008 Bill McChesney; both used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

On May 24, the Airflow’s woes were compounded by a new problem: a pending lawsuit file by the Jaray Streamline Corporation of America, charging Chrysler with patent infringement.


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  1. A wonderful article. I still have some very vivid memories of the Pennsylvania AACA vintage car shows back in the 1970’s when a couple of Chrysler Airflows would show up. And definitely got noticed, unlike my personal ’37 Buick Special.

    Now, how about some follow-up! I’d love to see an article on the Lincoln Zephyr, and would especially love to see something on the Hupp Aerodynamic’s of 1934-35. The 1937 Ford wouldn’t be out of line, either. The mid-30’s were definitely a wonderful time for automotive design.

    1. I would love to do the Zephyr and the original Continental, if I can put together enough pictures. (The fact that I was unable to find a ’36 or ’37 Zephyr photo to include in this article, as a contrast with the Airflow, tells you how many I have right now..!)

  2. I’d like to second the earlier commenter, the mid ’30s to early ’40s period really was a fascinating early golden age in automotive styling, where for the first time styling really was given a high priority over the more utilitarian looks of the 20s-early 30s, even if the customers of the day didn’t always go for the more radical examples of streamlined Art Deco, as was the case with the Airflow and shark nose Grahams.

    Although I appreciate the need to jump around a bit for variety, please do consider more articles on the ’30s streamliners in the future, as it is such a fertile era. – the Cord 810/812 would be a great read.

    As an aside, I read an article a few years back about an architect or fashion designer (some creative professional) in Manhattan who had a really special custom CW restomod built, taking an original Airflow body and interior and retrofitting it with a modern drivetrain and undercarriage, apparently the owner loved the Art Deco style and was using it as a daily driver in the city. Wish I had saved the article, but as I recall, there weren’t many pictures with it, but definitely an interesting project.

    1. I’m not categorically opposed to restomods, but doing it with a car as rare as a CW Imperial seems…wrong. I don’t know if they’re on the list of capital-C Classics (if not, they ought to be), but they’re extremely rare, with a lot of unique components (dashboard, brakes, springs, driveshaft, wheels, windshield). The CW is so huge and so heavy that even with a modern drivetrain, it would be a handful in city traffic — it’s bigger and heavier than an Escalade ESV. Admittedly, if it was in sad shape to start with, restoring it would be a serious pain in the ass, but still…

  3. Very interesting as always Aaron, I had a passing knowledge of the Airflows but it is great to read about the detail – I can’t imagine more than a few current cars would warrant the same attention!

    I saw a 1934 Airflow last year (with flat camera batteries!) and I remember previously one of the later model ones with what was quite evidently a tacked-on traditional grille. Looking at the photos perhaps what made the car look so jarring is the horizontal line of the hood which gives the optical illusion that the nose of the car is higher than the cowl, and I find the 6cyl cars better looking because the shorter nose lessens that impact. On the point that aero design per se was not sales-proof perhaps a slight taper for a less bulbous appearance, and wider-set headlights, would have made a difference?

    Rob it would be interesting to hear more about that car too.

    1. John,

      I hadn’t thought about the nose seeming higher than the cowl, but looking at the photos again, I see what you mean. It’s exacerbated by the position of the hood ornament, which gives the tip of the nose a bit of a ‘ski jump’ flair, even on the ’34s, where the original hood line actually slopes downward quite a bit. I imagine that is one of the factors that contributes to what I think of as a ‘stubby’ look to the whole car (especially sedans). The 1934 CU is quite a big car, but its rounded contours make it look smaller than it actually is, an effect that only the really long wheelbases of the CX and CW Imperials offset to any great degree.

      Deciding to mount the headlights in the leading edges of the body sides, rather than the fenders, was really limiting, both in spacing and light size. I don’t know why they didn’t mount the lights in the front fenders, as John Tjaarda did with the Zephyr. (The production Zephyr’s front end was mostly redone by Bob Gregorie, but the fender-mounted lights were on the original Briggs prototype.) I think the headlights of the ’36-’38 Zephyrs still look a bit awkward, but their spacing makes the Lincoln look lower and wider than the Airflow, even though it really isn’t.

      I imagine these are all reflections of the fact that the Airflow was [i]engineered[/i] more than actually [i]designed[/i]. The role of the stylists appears to have been to decorate the shape given them by the engineers, in which they had little if any say.

  4. Very nice article, Mr. Severson! I’m the president of the Airflow Club of America and I happened to find this site while searching for some other material. It’s nice to see a recent article about the Airflow. We are a small (425+) member club. We just had our National Meet in Durango, Colorado and I drove my 1935 C2 (Imperial) from Seattle WA. There are not many 76 year old cars which cruise smoothly down the road at 75 mph in overdrive. I did the return trip (1,300 miles) in two days. I own a 35 Packard, a 37 Cord and numerous other cars of the era and none can match the “modern” ride and drive of an Airflow.

    You are right, Engineering called the shots when the Airflow was designed. It was truly radical. Besides being quiet and smooth at 75 mph, it has gobs of art deco everywhere.

    The 6 cylinder cars (all DeSotos) are true to the Airflow spirit, but after riding in a prototype, Chrysler wanted an Airflow with his name on it. The Imperial Coupes are very well proportioned with six extra inches behind the B pillar.

    I am not opposed to rods, but if a CW was rodded it would break my heart so don’t verify it, please!

    In 1934, Chrysler did offer a retrofit grill which replaced the pure “waterfall” look with a more traditional grill – as was found on the ’35 models. With each passing year, as sales never materialized, Chrysler tried to make the front end look more conventional.

    Visit the website at Check out the video of the Airflow being pushed off a cliff and driving away (in the Library section). If anyone would like to see an Airflow close up, let me know and I’ll link you up with the closest members.

    Thanks again for a nice article!

    1. Frank,

      Thanks for the kind words!

      I’ve seen the story that the Airflow was originally intended [i]only[/i] as a six-cylinder DeSoto in a number of secondary sources. Do you have an original source for that account? As it stands, I’m afraid I’m rather skeptical of it.

      It’s true that the 1932 Trifon Special prototype was a DeSoto-size, six-cylinder car, and Carl Breer does say that he and Oliver Clark started with a six-cylinder model in laying out the packaging for the Airflow; they wanted to determine the minimum dimensions necessary to achieve both the aerodynamic profile and minimum passenger space they were looking for. However, Breer makes no mention of intending to [i]only[/i] offer the Airflow as a six, and his account indicated that the decision about which brands would offer it was made later. All he says on that subject is that they decided it would be sold by Chrysler and DeSoto; he says nothing about any plan to market it as a DeSoto-only product.

      Breer does say that Walter P. Chrysler was very excited about introducing the Airflow to celebrate Chrysler’s 10th anniversary. Based on Breer’s description of WPC’s enthusiasm for the project, it’s hard to conceive Chrysler [i]not[/i] wanting an Airflow with his name on it — if somebody suggested otherwise, I’m not sure who or why. From a business standpoint, certainly, offering the Airflow only as a DeSoto six wouldn’t have made much sense. The development costs were undoubtedly high, and DeSoto’s annual volume was not; it hadn’t topped 40,000 units since before the Crash. Also, even if there were some original plan to only offer it as a six, why didn’t the U.S. Chrysler line get the CY?

      Now, given the antipathy some of the corporation’s management apparently had toward the Airflow project, it’s entirely possible that getting the individual presidents to accept it was quite a battle. I suppose it’s possible that DeSoto president Byron Foy was less opposed than his colleagues; I really don’t know. However, my suspicion is that if there was a debate over who would offer the Airflow, it was more a matter of internal resistance than any overarching plan of what the Airflow should be.

      It would certainly be fair to call the six the baseline Airflow, since the larger eight-cylinder cars were created by splicing additional sections into the body panels and frame, but I don’t know that that means the bigger cars were somehow an afterthought. From Breer’s account, I think it was just easier to start with the smaller version, to establish the minimum package dimensions. That makes sense — if you know you have acceptable passenger room on the shorter wheelbase, it’s easy to make it bigger, whereas if you base your engineering on the larger version, it’s harder to scale it down without compromising utility space.

      If someone can point me toward a primary source for the DeSoto-only story — first-person accounts of the meeting where it was decided, etc. — I’ll happily accept that, but otherwise, I’m inclined to think that story may just be a misinterpretation of Carl Breer’s account, one that has, as they say, grown in the telling.

      I wholly agree on the CW. I’m not keen on the idea of heavily customizing the Airflow to begin with — it’s relatively rare, of obvious historical interest, and already pretty wild looking without any help — and the idea of cutting up a CW is the sort of thing that gives historians night terrors!

  5. Aaron,
    In the text on page one, it states that the Rumpler Tropfenwagen was powered by a 2.5 W6. Is this a misprint of V6? Or was this a prelude to to todays W8 Volkswagen?

    1. Nope, that’s not a typo. The early Tropfenwagen had a 2,580 cc Siemens & Halske engine with three banks of two cylinders. I don’t think I’ve ever seen a picture of it, but I imagine it was rather bulky.

      1. while we are on the subject of the Tropfenwagen, Ferdinand Porsche had nothing to do with its development, as he was employed by Daimler, not Benz. The two companies formed an association in 1924, formally merged, forming Mercedes-Benz in 1926. Integrating the engineering staff of the two former rivals took a while, with the Benz faction eventually gaining ascendancy.

        1. Thanks — I looked back through my notes and saw how that error probably cropped up, but you’re right and I’ve amended the text.

  6. another expertly written and beautifully illustrated article on these avant garde art deco cars that were way ahead of their time in terms of both styling and engineering-please do an article on the history of De Soto

  7. I own a 1935 Chrysler Airstream c-6 Coupe.
    I’ve been able to determine thru internet research that there were 1975 like models made. What I can’t find is how many of them were standards and how many were deluxe. Does anyone know or know how I can find this info.


    1. Dennis,

      The information I have indicates that the six-cylinder Airstream C-6 models weren’t grouped into standard and deluxe versions, only the CZ Airstream Eight. Your number is what I show for business coupe production, as well.

      1. Thank you for the reply that’s interesting to hear, but I’m still confused. I’ve seen, what I believe are photo’s of some C-6’s with parking lights on top of the front fenders & horns mounted thru the stainless grill work on the fenders below the headlites on ea. side of the addition these cars have 2 windshield wipers. In addition to that I’ve seen photos of C-6’s with no parking lites on the fenders – grill work on the lower fenders
        with no horns & also a single wiper. I’m confused about the differences, could it be as simple as diff. options? What are your thoughts.

        1. The Deluxe models were introduced after the start of the 1935 model year. At least on CZs, the dual horns were initially standard and then were deleted on non-Deluxe Eights when the Deluxe was introduced; the horn layout you describe sound like the early and late non-Deluxe CZ arrangements. Chrysler’s factory production figures don’t distinguish between Deluxe and non-Deluxe CZs, probably because of the midyear change. Now, I don’t know anything about a Deluxe version of the six-cylinder cars — all of that applies to the Eights.

          Is it possible that some of the confusing pictures you’ve seen were actually mislabeled CZs? A quick image search just now revealed at least once set of photos labeled as C-6s that are pretty clearly late CZ Deluxes (they even have the winged "8" badges on the catwalks) and there was definitely that variation with the eight-cylinder cars. I could see the parking lamps being a dealer or owner add-on, but the horns do seem like a production variation.

          1. I realize this is a long shot but here goes. I inherited my fathers 1935 AirStream C6. It has spare tires in each fender, 2 windshield wipers, a luggage rack and the back of the passenger seat raises up like in a business coupe. Any help clarifying what series it is would be appreciated.

  8. Finally! The story of the Airflow in enough detail for me to understand these beautiful machines. Thank you for this piece!

    They may not have sold well, but their influence was certainly felt around the world. You mention the Volvo Carioca and the <i>Fuseau Sochaux</i> Peugeots (the last of which were made in 1949!), but there is also the first “proper” car from the land of the rising sun: the 1936 Toyota AA. None survived, so Toyota actually built one for their museum in the 1990s.

    Along with Cords, Marmons, Franklins, shark-nose Grahams and the Zephyr, these Chryslers are the epitome of 30s American cars for me.

    1. I must admit had always been a little skeptical of the Toyota link, but the 2012 edition of Toyota’s official history specifically says the Toyoda Model AA took its inspiration from the Airflow. It wasn’t just the styling either; the engineers at Toyoda (not spun off of the parent company as Toyota Motor until 1937) recognized and sought to emulate what Breer and crew had done with the Airflow’s weight distribution and ride. Very interesting.

      1. I should add that while the Model AA was the first Toyota automobile, it was NOT the first Japanese car. The first Japanese-built four-wheeled automobile was made in 1904 and the first gasoline-powered car was in 1907. However, people really didn’t have enough money to create a sustainable domestic passenger car industry until much later. According to the numbers I’ve seen, it wasn’t until 1951 that Japanese companies built more than 2,000 passenger cars in a single calendar year.

  9. There is a rather long promotional video of the Airflow made by Chrysler in the mid-1930s that discusses its design and features, and includes a rather dramatic test rollover with a live driver. The roof of the vehicle remains completely intact as do all windows, although one rear door came open (they lacked interlocking door latches that have been required since the late 1960s). If you have not seen this, you should get a copy. I may have a video version if you cannot find one elsewhere. This video provides dramatic evidence that manufacturers could have provided good rollover protection in more recent decades without the advanced materials now used to meet FMVSS 216, and saved thousands of lives in rollovers (particularly of SUVs).

    1. I’ve never seen the film, but I’ve heard about some of the stunts Chrysler did to demonstrate the Airflow’s rigidity and safety, including pushing one off a cliff. It was partly done to counter rumors that the Airflow wasn’t very strong, perhaps because people heard that its inner skeleton was not all that rigid by itself. (The bridge-and-truss skeleton wasn’t intended to be self-supporting, but once welded to the body panels, the whole thing was extremely stout.)

  10. Though only slightly connected to the article, is it known whether other more viable engines (e.g. inline, V-angle, Boxer, etc) were considered for the Chrysler Star Car in place of the five-cylinder radial-engine?

    It seems like a number of otherwise production worthy designs during that period up til the end of WW2 were fatally compromised by radial or other experimental engines.

    Also interested to know where one can find more information on Chrysler’s post-war small car project (including the name), which was intended to challenge the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Light Car project that eventually became the Vedette.

    1. To your first question, as far as I know, there were not. The “Star Cars” were FWD (if you look up the SIA article “MoPar’s Star Cars” on the Hemmings site, you’ll see some photos of the powertrain layout), which, like some early postwar FWD cars, was predicated on fitting the engine in a relatively short space ahead of the front axle. Short of the radial engine, that configuration would probably have dictated either an I-2, a V-4 or an H-4, with the latter probably being the most practical choice. Had Chrysler succeeded in finding overseas licensing interest, they might have gone that route, since for a non-experimental project, it’s hard to see a manufacturer considering the complexity of the five-cylinder radial worthwhile for an 1,100cc engine.

      The postwar concept you’re probably thinking of is Project A-106. I don’t have much detailed info on it; it was designed around an H-4 engine, but I don’t know the engine’s specifications beyond that.

      1. Indeed, the radial and other experimental engines considered by rivals were blind alleys.

        Agree about the production versions of the Star Car being powered by H-4 engines, though why didn’t Chrysler consider such an idea themselves instead of seeking out overseas licensing interests?

        Regarding Chrysler’s efforts in seeking overseas interest in the UK, know the likes of Stafford Gripps and others in the post-war Attlee wanted to establish a British people’s car project, supporting the stillborn efforts of Roy Fedden and Denis Kendall in setting up such their own car projects.

        Could an H-4 powered Star Car have remained in production after WW2 let alone achieve similar success to another similarly styled model whose engine layout / etc was at the rear?

        1. As far as I know, the Star Cars that were built were primarily experimental rather than development prototypes. With experimental designs, it’s not uncommon for a mule or set of mules to examine several different technologies at once, even if there isn’t any serious intent to build a production model that way. While an H-4 engine would probably have been a more promising design, it was no less radical for Chrysler in terms of actual production (having no relationship at all to any existing engine design), but less novel strictly from an engineering standpoint, offering less to be learned from experimentation. At that point, there wouldn’t have been a market for such a car in the U.S., at least in that form, and Chrysler didn’t have the export organization or local dealerships to offer it outside North America in meaningful quantities, especially given the complex tariffs and import duties involved in pre-EEC multinational productions.

          When the project began, Walter Chrysler was very enthusiastic about the Airflow and basically showing off what Chrysler engineering was capable of. Given the timing, my assumption is that the Star Cars amounted to dabbling in what they might do if they took some of the concepts involved in the Airflow a step or two further: FWD and a compact, easily removable powertrain. I can’t see Chrysler putting it into production in that form, but if the drivetrain and radial engine had shown promise AND if the Airflow had been a big hit, some of those concepts might have shown up in an Airflow successor. However, the Airflow was not a big hit, Chrysler management started getting nervous about these pie-in-the-sky engineering fancies and lost any interest in building such a thing. I think the effort to find a British licensee was at least partly a flailing attempt to recoup some of the substantial investment Chrysler had already made in the project rather than a coherent marketing strategy, which, combined with the timing, may have been why it didn’t pan out.

          I don’t know that comparative engineering strengths are a reliable predictor of commercial success. Some advanced designs fail despite their strengths, lacking other important characteristics like after-sale service or just being too costly to build. Some rudimentary or old-fashioned designs succeed because they’re reliable, familiar, or just well-marketed. So, it’s hard to judge potential success simply based on specifications without a sense of who a product would be marketed to, how well, and for what price.

          1. In the case of the Airflow, were there other more attractive styling proposals that Chrysler considered which could have worked in retrospect?

            Guess the following is admittingly a fantasy, it would have been interesting if a production worthy Star Car formed the basis for Chrysler’s UK division instead of them later acquiring Rootes.

          2. Well, as the article explains, the Airflow — and presumably the Star Cars — were primarily engineering designs, not styling ones. The role of Chrysler Art & Colour was to decorate the pre-approved shape (which they did pretty well, in my view), not to decide what it would look like; what today we’d probably call “detail styling.” Judging by the photos I’ve seen of the Airflow prototypes, the alternatives the engineers developed were arguably worse, although there’s a coupe design with a low-slung roof that would have pleased postwar customizers. Could actual stylists have come up with ways to apply the Airflow’s aerodynamic concepts in a more visually appealing way, and potentially on a smaller scale? Sure; the Peugeot was not an unattractive car for its day. Did Chrysler do that? Not so far as I know.

            Another significant consideration is that I remain convinced that part of the reason for the Airflow’s mediocre sales performance was that the Airflow cars were quite expensive. That’s an issue that would likely have affected the viability of something like the Star Car, especially vis-à-vis contemporary Ford of England offerings.

  11. What a first class article! Too bad the looks of the Airflow were so artless and indeed clumsy, and I say that as an engineer. Certainly the cars were expensive to produce, but a little exterior grace would perhaps have saved the sales day. You cover that aspect well in a reply comment above.

    On the little radial engine FWD project, I was unaware of it until now. So the radial multibank Sherman tank engine that Chrysler produced in WWII makes sense with its five 6 cylinder blocks. Not the same crank arrangement, but they knew it was a doable project and likely to succeed without protracted development time. Too bad for them that Ford produced a monster rival DOHC GAA V8 that eclipsed it. Surely the Ford had the most advanced cylinder head design for decades afterwards, a tour-de-force. Jags, Alfas, Mercedes and F1 engines did not have a narrow valve angle, direct-acting bucket tappets from the cam, and a central spark plug in a DOHC four-valve pentroof head, until Duckworth reinvented it for the FVA/DFV. Most engines have similar layouts today bar bucket tappets. The RR Merlin looks positively antediluvian by comparison.

  12. I’m surprised that the cars stayed so expensive for so long; once Chrysler realized that the development costs were going to be lost, one would have hoped that they could sell the cars at a little above cost, keep the volume up, and make the most of a bad situation. I’ve heard that a typical modern car wholesales for about double its manufacturing cost in the first year of production, so, assuming that the ratio was in the same neighborhood, there should have been room to bring the price at least inline with the Airstream models, which might have generated more volume. I’m not sure exactly why the production costs of such a unitized car were higher than for a body-on-frame design; maybe welding technology had a ways to go before they’d be on par. Certainly, unitized cars were competitive with body-on-frame designs by the mid 1950s, but I’m sure the manufacturing process was more streamlined by that time.
    One thing, other than styling, that seemed possibly premature on these models was the placement of the engine directly over the drive wheels; with no power steering I’d expect that would make these cars a hand-full to drive. Also, with skinny 1930s bias-ply tires, I wonder how the engine placement affected under-steer. The gradual puling-in of the front wheels that ultimately had them protruding into the passenger space by the late 1970s was made practical by the standardization of power steering, better suspensions and radial tires.

    1. The issue, vis-à-vis cost, is not simply the cost of materials and labor, but the cost of tooling and production facilities. If something can’t be build on existing assembly lines with existing tools and equipment, the cost of its special facilities has to be amortized over the run of the model or models that do use those facilities. (There are different ways to do that, but it has to be done somehow and factored into the overall P&L for a model line.)

      Part of the reason unitized cars were more expensive is that the nature of unit construction means more new tooling and/or tooling changes for each new model or model change. A lot of the focus of postwar development on unit bodies has been on finding ways to spread those costs around by creating ranges of different products that share certain big, costly subassemblies (such as the cowl/scuttle structure or the floorpan), but doing that requires time, planning, and a commitment to continue to build products in those ways.

      Shifting weight forward does unarguably promote understeer, although there were very, very few cars of that era that had much in the way of cornering ability, and “ease of handling” meant something rather different than “handling ability.” The Airflow cars had high steering ratios that made for lots of wheel-winding, not unlike postwar American cars without power steering. If you’ve ever driven an American car of the sixties without power steering, the steering typically isn’t that heavy (less so, often, than a European or Japanese subcompact of the seventies or eighties without power steering), but it does require a lot of cranking to change directions, which imparts a feeling of vagueness to the action. By thirties standards, that wasn’t necessarily considered a terrible thing, and slow steering that was not very reversible could be a relief on rough roads.

      1. Thanks for the quick moderation and reply! It brought back memories of learning to drive on my father’s 1975 Malibu, which despite being only “mid size” weighed 3,700 pounds without an automatic, power steering or power brakes. The lack of power steering, with 7 turns lock-to-lock, was the worst omission of the three. The car, shipped that way by accident (long story), was an interesting experience, but I’m glad they don’t make cars that size without power steering these days.
        PS: I didn’t say it the first time around in my haste to make my points as concisely as possible, but this was a great article. I’ve learned a lot from this site.

        1. Thanks!

          The lack of power steering is certainly a headache by modern standards, and it’s not difficult to understand why automakers generally compromised with non-power steering ratios requiring a bazillion turns lock-to-lock. Even something like an early Honda Civic, which weighed well under a ton dripping wet and had steering ratios giving something in the realm of four turns lock-to-lock, can be a real bicep-builder when trying to parallel park! Avoiding that was a significantly bigger concern for U.S. automakers than were quickness or precision of response, which in any case were not exactly strong points of the large majority of prewar cars. With a prewar sports car (or something like a Morgan that is functionally a prewar design regardless of actual date of manufacture), the combination of low ride height, relatively quick-ratio steering, minimal curb weight, and stiff springs made for more responsive handling, but you paid a heavy price in ride quality and steering weight, and for all the masochism involved, actual developed cornering power was still pretty modest. It’s no great surprise that the average American buyer’s response to that sort of thing was, “Ugh, no thanks.”

  13. “Jaray applied for a patent in August 1922 on automobiles with streamlined bodies. It covered essentially any car whose aerodynamic form comprised one partial teardrop shape (the greenhouse) atop another (the body itself).”

    How in hell could a patent office issue any type of license based upon such a vague, non-detailed, and overly generalized application. Chrysler should had taken Jaray’s patent infringement claim to court, as the Airflow did not resemble ‘two stacked partial teardrops‘ by any means.

    Guess no one thought to apply to the same patent office for a vehicle design patent license based upon ‘two stacked rectangular blocks’. With nearly every vehicle at the time having that similar design, every manufacture would had been sued for patent infringement.

    But then again, most engineers and designers at the time would not have had the same audacity as Jaray to submit a patent application with such a claim.

    1. With nearly every vehicle at the time having that similar design, every manufacture would had been sued for patent infringement.

      Look up the saga of the 1895 Selden patent and you’ll see this was pretty much par for the course (as it remains in various other fields today).

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