A Big Healey History: The Austin-Healey 100, 100-6, and 3000

In October 1952, Donald Healey introduced what was to be the most famous car bearing his name: the Austin-Healey 100. It would survive for 15 years in three distinct incarnations, along the way gaining a six-cylinder engine and a formidable competition record. In this installment of Ate Up With Motor, we examine the origins and evolution of the “big Healeys”: the 1953-1967 Austin-Healey 100, 100-6, and 3000.
1960 Austin-Healey 3000 badge


By late 1951, the tiny Warwick-based Donald Healey Motor Company offered four distinct models: the luxurious Tickford saloon and Abbott drophead (convertible), both powered by a 2,443 cc (149 cu. in.) Riley four; the Anglo-American Nash-Healey with its big Nash six; and the new Healey Sports Convertible, powered by a 2,993 cc (183 cu. in.) Alvis engine. All used variations of the same chassis and all were quite expensive, selling in very modest numbers.

1954 Healey Tickford front 3q © 2009 Clive Barker (used with permission)
Although Healeys were always sporty, they weren’t necessarily sports cars. The company also offered a number of two-door saloons and drophead coupes, all of which were a good deal larger than the ‘big’ Austin-Healeys. This is a late-model Tickford Sports Saloon, named for the Newport Pagnell coachbuilder that built its wood-framed aluminum body. Only about 224 were built between 1950 and 1954. (Photo: “1954 Healey Tickford Saloon” © 2009 Clive Barker; used with permission)

Donald Healey was well aware that the company’s products had a limited audience in the U.K. and were too costly to make a big impression on the American market. The Nash-Healey, for example, cost nearly $2,000 more than a Jaguar XK-120, itself far from cheap. After a trip to the U.S. in the fall of 1951, Healey concluded that what his company really needed was a sports car to fit into the sizable price gap between the Jaguar and the MG TD.

A cheaper car would need a different engine, ideally one less bulky than the Riley four, which weighed some 600 lb (272 kg). That engine was not long for the world, in any case. According to Healey’s son Geoff, DHMC’s head of engineering development, Riley was eager to phase out the twin-cam four, whose design dated back to the 1920s.

An interesting alternative was Austin’s big OHV four. Introduced in the 1945 Austin 16, it had seen duty in the A70 saloon, the K8 van, the ubiquitous FX3 taxicab, and civilian versions of the Austin Champ truck. Bored out from 2,199 to 2,660 cc (134 to 162 cu. in.) and fitted with two S.U. carburetors, that engine had powered the A90 Atlantic, Austin’s ill-fated attempt to crack the U.S. market. The big four was not a particularly racy engine, but it was sturdy, dependable, and readily available. Although the Atlantic had been a commercial failure, Austin chairman Leonard Lord still liked the idea of an Austin-powered sports car (during the same period, he also considered proposals from Frazer-Nash and Jensen) and was happy to provide whatever Healey required.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 engine
The first Austin-Healey used the 2,660 cc (162 cu. in.) inline four from the A90 Atlantic. As was typical for British engines conceived during the era of the RAC taxable horsepower formula, the big four was undersquare, with a bore of 87.3 mm (3.44 inches) and a stroke of 111.1 mm (4.37 inches), running in three main bearings. It had 7.5:1 compression and two 1.5-inch (38mm) S.U. H4 carburetors, giving 90 hp (67 kW) and 144 lb-ft (195 N-m) of torque. The optional Le Mans engine kit included a high-lift camshaft, 8.3:1 compression, and two 1.75-inch (45mm) S.U. H6 carburetors. Torque was almost unchanged, but maximum output rose to 110 hp (82 kW).

The new car also required an updated chassis. The existing chassis, designed by A.C. Sampietro during the war, was expensive to build and its trailing-arm front suspension suffered heavy understeer, so Healey engineer Barry Bilbie started over from scratch. The new chassis would have semi-unitized construction, using a self-supporting frame to which were welded two large sub-assemblies comprising most of the inner body structure. Although the combination was heavier than a true monocoque, it was very sturdy, providing a solid foundation for the suspension. Most exterior panels would be aluminum, helping to keep the car’s dry weight to only 1,850 lb (839 kg).

1950 Austin A90 Atlantic convertible front 3q © 2010 Martin Alford (used with permission)
The Healey Hundred borrowed its engine, gearbox, and suspension from the Austin A90 Atlantic (which in turn shared them with the Austin A70). Front suspension was by double wishbones, coil springs, Armstrong lever-action shock absorbers, and an anti-roll bar. The rear suspension used the A70/A90 spiral-bevel axle on semi-elliptical springs, located laterally by a Panhard rod. The A90 axle was not really up to sports car duty, so it was replaced in 1954 by the hypoid-bevel axle from the new Austin Westminster saloon. (Photo: “Austin A90 Atlantic convertible (1950)” © 2010 Martin Alford; used with permission)


The task of clothing the new chassis fell to Gerry Coker, who had joined the company as a body engineer in 1950. Although Coker was not a stylist, the Healeys thought highly of his sense of line and he was adept at creating details that were attractive but still practical for production, a vital point for a company with Healey’s limited resources. Coker had never designed a complete car before, but he promised to do his best.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 front 3q
Although the 100 and 3000 are now commonly known as the ‘big Healeys,’ they were big only in comparison to the tiny Austin-Healey Sprite. The original Hundred was 151.5 inches (3,848 mm) long and 60 inches (1,524 mm) wide on a 90-inch (2,286mm) wheelbase, about the same size as a Triumph TR2 and considerably smaller than the earlier Healeys. Curb weight was about 2,200 lb (1,000 kg), although sources are vague about whether or not that figure includes a full tank of fuel.

Donald Healey was not exactly brimming with confidence and micromanaged Coker relentlessly throughout the design process. The new car was an enormous gamble and Healey couldn’t afford to fail; we assume that even building a prototype represented a huge investment. In a 2008 interview with Steven Kingsbury, Coker said he had eventually had to refuse to make any more changes, realizing that the process had reached the point of diminishing returns. Healey accepted Coker’s final full-size drawing, albeit not without reservations.

Healey commissioned John Thompson Motor Pressings Company in Wolverhampton to build a prototype chassis and engaged Tickford to build the body shell from Coker’s scale drawings. The initial prototype, painted light blue, was completed in September 1952. Road testing on Belgium’s Jabbeke highway demonstrated the prototype’s 100+ mph (161 km/h) capability. In fact, the light blue car could reach speeds of up to 106 mph (171 km/h) — as good as the larger Nash-Healey could manage with a six-cylinder engine of 50% greater displacement. Healey decided to christen the new model the Healey Hundred.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 windscreen
The original Austin-Healey 100’s folding windshield was Donald Healey’s inspiration, but it fell to Gerry Coker to make it work. Coker did, but properly adjusting the screen was a two-person job and contemporary testers complained that the unit rattled. The folding screen also did nothing for top sealing.

A few weeks later, John Bolster of Autosport magazine took the prototype back to Belgium, where he reached a highly respectable 112 mph (180 km/h) with the windscreen folded and a tonneau cover over the passenger seat. Bolster praised the car’s well-balanced handling and road manners, although he complained that with the Hundred’s light weight, the A90 gearbox’s low first gear (with an overall ratio of 14.8:1) was basically useless, producing nothing but wheel spin. Still, Bolster’s impressions were extremely favorable, boding well for the Hundred’s future.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 grille badge
Like almost everything else on the car, the Austin-Healey 100’s ‘flash’ grille badge was designed by Gerry Coker.


In October, Healey entered the prototype Hundred in the 1952 International Motor Show at Earls Court in London. Shortly before the show, Donald Healey had an attack of last-minute second thoughts about the design, particularly the front end. Since it was too late to make any more changes, he positioned the prototype on its stand so that the nose pointed toward a row of ornamental shrubbery, making it difficult for spectators to get a close look.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 front
The Austin-Healey 100’s grille was a stylistic evolution of Healey’s earlier cars, which had grilles of a similar shape. Donald Healey had many doubts about this grille, so it underwent a host of revisions between its initial conception and the final product.

Healey needn’t have worried. Once he was persuaded to move the car into the open, the Healey Hundred became the hit of the show. The prototype’s styling was much praised; Coker, understandably gratified, was both flattered and bemused that many observers assumed the design was Italian. John Bolster’s glowing write-up in Autosport, published a few days earlier, probably added to the general enthusiasm; Healey arranged for reprints of that article to be handed out at the show.

Healey initially announced that the Hundred would be built in Warwick with bodies by Tickford and a base price of £850 (£1,323 14s 5d with purchase tax), not including overdrive. However, throughout the show, he had a series of meetings with Austin executives about the possibility of offering the car on a much larger scale. Austin’s Leonard Lord, who had recently become managing director of the newly formed British Motor Corporation, pointed out that with the reception the Hundred had received, demand would greatly exceed the capacity of Healey’s tiny factory. Lord proposed that they make the Hundred a co-branded product, built by Austin from Healey’s design.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 rear 3q right
Gerry Coker’s initial conception for the Healey Hundred included vestigial rear fins, but Donald Healey ordered their deletion before the first prototype was complete. Both Coker and Healey later said the fins had been a mistake and agreed that the car looked much better without them.

Healey, Lord, and BMC chairman Lord Nuffield negotiated an agreement over drinks on the evening of October 21. Afterward, Healey asked Coker to design an “Austin-Healey” badge, which was made by a local jeweler and hastily added to the prototype.


Healey’s agreement with BMC called for the first 20 Hundreds to be built in Warwick, which would also be responsible for competition and special projects. Austin’s Longbridge factory would take over production in the spring of 1953, but all cars would still be built to Healey’s specifications. There were very few changes to Coker’s original design, but the grille was reshaped to assuage Donald Healey’s ongoing doubts while the front fenders were raised to satisfy U.S. requirements for headlamp height. (Coker performed both modifications himself.)

Originally, the body shells were to come from Tickford, but Jensen Motors in West Bromwich won the contract after Dick Jensen convinced Lord that Jensen was capable of much higher volume than was Tickford. The Healeys, however, were never entirely satisfied with Jensen’s work, annoyed by what they saw as attempts to bolster profit margins by cutting corners. Coker was dispatched to Jensen many times to address these problems, putting him in the awkward position of communicating the Healeys’ displeasure in some diplomatic way.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 boot badge
The earliest Austin-Healey 100s had “Austin of England” badges on the rear decklid, replaced by an Austin-Healey emblem in mid-1954.

One significant mechanical change to the production cars was the gearbox. Concurring with Bolster that first gear was useless, Healey decided to simply block it off, effectively making the transmission an all-synchro three-speed. To compensate, Laycock de Normanville overdrive became standard equipment, providing a total of five forward speeds. This was not an entirely satisfactory solution; the resultant shift pattern was very peculiar and the A90 gearbox proved troublesome and somewhat fragile in service.

The first few cars were built for the U.S. auto show circuit, where the Hundred was just as well received as it had been in London. Adding to its appeal was its U.S. price, a reasonable $2,985 POE. As Healey had intended, that put the Hundred about halfway between the MG TD and the Jaguar XK-120, leaving it — albeit briefly — with no obvious competition. (In fact, the Hundred had inadvertently stymied plans to replace the aging TD with a more modern sports car; Leonard Lord canceled MG’s EX175 project three days after the Healey deal.)

1953 Austin-Healey 100 dash
The Hundred’s dashboard was very basic, including a speedometer, tachometer, oil pressure, water temperature, and fuel gauges. The switch on the steering wheel hub controls the Trafficator (semaphore-type) turn signals.

Experience with the early Hundreds revealed a number of deficiencies, which led to various minor modifications before regular production began at Longbridge in May. Chief among those was the decision to trade the vulnerable aluminum bodywork for heavier but more durable steel panels, although the aluminum bonnet and decklid would survive into 1954. The switch to steel may have contributed to another welcome change: a £100 decrease in the list price, to £750 ex works, £1,063 12s 6d with purchase tax. (The U.S. list price was not changed.)


Four of the early production models were lightweight “Special Test” cars, intended for competition and record attempts. All had Birmabright aluminum panels, aluminum bumpers and radiators, and specially built engines with nitride-hardened crankshafts, hotter cams, and various tuning changes. In place of the jerry-rigged A90 gearbox, the Special Test cars were fitted with the heavy-duty unit from the FX3 taxi, which had a much stiffer, slower action, but was considerably stronger.

Three of those cars went to France in June 1953 for the 24 Hours of Le Mans. One car was driven by Gordon Wilkins and Marcel Becquart, a second by John Lockett and Maurice Gatsonides, with the third intended for practice. Although the event was fraught with problems, including a traffic accident that badly damaged one of the cars before the race, Lockett and Gatsonides managed 12th place overall, Becquart and Wilkins 14th. Both were a few paces behind the Nash-Healey of Leslie Johnson and Bert Hadley, which came in 11th overall.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 wheel
All Austin-Healey 100s had Dunlop wire wheels and 11-inch (279mm) drum brakes, although the stock brakes were painted silver. Lightweight Al-Fin brakes were optional, although Geoff Healey said there were reservations about their strength. The early Special Test cars used cast iron Girling brakes with heavy-duty Mintex linings.

Although the modified engine acquitted itself very well throughout the race, output was still only about 100 hp (75 kW). After Le Mans, Healey requested a more powerful version, which was developed by Austin engineer Don Hawley (who would go on to design Triumph’s slant four and Stag V8) using a new high-compression, four-port head designed by BMC consultant Harry Weslake. The changes raised output to a healthy 132 hp (98 kW).

One of the four-port engines was installed in the fourth Special Test car, which received modified bodywork (designed by Coker) to improve its aerodynamics. In September, that car went to the Bonneville Salt Flats, where Donald Healey drove it to speeds of up to 142.6 mph (229.6 km/h). Although the engine blew during a subsequent trial and had to be replaced, the car nonetheless captured a host of U.S. and international Class D speed records.

Such achievements did wonders for the Hundred’s image, particularly in the U.S., where the car became available in quantity that fall. The press reaction was very favorable. The Hundred was no all-purpose GT — the folding windscreen tended to rattle, weather protection was meager, and engine heat soaked into the cabin — but reviewers praised the fast steering, neutral handling, and strong performance. The Hundred was quick for its era and the big four’s low-end torque made it far more flexible than most small sports cars. Late in the year, owners could also order a kit to modify their engines to the same level of tune as the Le Mans cars, using larger S.U. H6 carburetors, a cold-air intake system, and a high-lift camshaft. (Some of these kits were fitted in Warwick prior to delivery to dealers.)

1953 Austin-Healey 100 tonneau
The factory claimed that the Austin-Healey 100 could reach 60 mph (97 km/h) in 10.5 seconds with a top speed of 110 mph (176 km/h), although the fine print noted that the latter figure was achievable only in proper tune with the windscreen folded and the tonneau cover in place. Contemporary road tests recorded 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) in the 11- to 12-second range, with top speeds between 103 and 106 mph (165 and 170 km/h).

The Austin-Healey now had a serious rival in the new Triumph TR-2, which was about the same size, had a very similar power-to-weight ratio, and cost a full $500 less. Nonetheless, the Hundred was the most successful Healey to date. More than 1,200 were sold through the end of the year — very close to the total number of cars built in Warwick since 1945.


Four more Special Test cars were built in 1954. All had the four-port engine (plus an oil cooler to alleviate an oil temperature issue noted at Le Mans) along with a David Brown close-ratio gearbox and new Dunlop disc brakes, fitted at all four corners.

Lance Macklin and George Huntoon took the first of these cars to the 12 Hours of Sebring in March, managing first in their class and third overall despite a broken rocker arm that left them down one cylinder. Their strong performance actually proved a handicap in future events — at the Mille Miglia in May, race officials insisted the Hundreds had to run in the over-2-liter sports car class, pitting the Healeys against far more powerful competitors like Ferrari and Maserati. The company faced a similar challenge at Le Mans, where the disc-equipped Hundreds were pushed into the sports car prototype class. Healey opted to withdraw, issuing a public statement lamenting the growing gap between racers and production cars.

That summer, two Special Test cars were prepared for another round of record attempts at Bonneville. One of the entries was the previous year’s record-setter, fitted with disc brakes and a new 142 hp (106 kW) engine. The other had a heavily modified streamliner body, another Gerry Coker creation, with a bubble canopy and a dramatic but purely cosmetic dorsal fin. Intended to reach 200 mph (320 km/h), the streamliner had a Shorrock supercharger, giving 224 hp (167 kW) on a mixture of Benzole, methanol, and castor oil. While the streamliner set a new array of speed records, it didn’t quite hit the target; its best speed was 192.7 mph (310.2 km/h). The endurance car achieved 53 records of its own, maintaining more than 132 mph (212 km/h) for over 24 hours.

1955 Austin-Healey 100S front 3q © 2009 Rex Gray CC BY 2.0 Generic
Aside from its Perspex windscreen and lack of bumpers, the most obvious distinguishing feature of the 100S body was a slight body side crease that provided a break point for two-tone paint jobs; many (though not all) of these cars were two-tone, usually white over dark Lobelia Blue. The 100S weighed about 200 lb (91 kg) less than the standard Hundred. (Photo: “1955 Austin Healey 100S roadster – fvl” © 2009 Rex Gray; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

That fall, Healey announced that the Sebring car would be the basis for a new limited-production sports racer, christened 100S. Intended for racing homologation and competition-minded owners, it had a reinforced frame and an all-aluminum body with a new grille and a one-piece Perspex windscreen. The bumpers were deleted to save weight while the fuel tank was enlarged from 12 to 20 Imperial gallons (14.4 to 24 U.S. gallons; 54.5 to 90.9 liters). Four-wheel Dunlop disc brakes were standard, as was a close-ratio Morris gearbox, although overdrive moved to the options list. The 100S engine was similar to the earlier Weslake-designed four-port unit, but had revised manifolds, a high-compression aluminum head, a lightened flywheel, and dual exhausts. Output was 132 hp (98 kW) and 168 lb-ft (228 N-m) of torque, which combined with the lighter weight and close-ratio gearbox to give ferocious performance: 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) in less than 8 seconds with a top speed of more than 125 mph (201 km/h). List price was just under $5,000.

The higher-revving engine was far from smooth and there were problems with the aluminum cylinder heads, clutches, and exhaust manifolds, but the 100S was a true dual-purpose sports racer, taking class victories at both Sebring and the Mille Miglia in early 1955. Unfortunately, that summer, one of the Special Test prototypes was also involved in the worst racing tragedy of the decade. On the 35th lap at Le Mans in June, Healey driver Lance Macklin’s car, registration NOJ 393, was rear-ended by Pierre Levegh’s Mercedes 300SLR. The Mercedes flipped over and struck a retaining wall, sending its engine and debris hurtling into the crowd and then catching fire. Macklin was not injured, but Levegh and about 80 spectators were killed with dozens more injured. Macklin’s car was impounded and not returned to Warwick until more than a year later.

Production of the 100S continued for about four months after Le Mans, ending in November. Including the Special Test cars, only 55 were built, including a prototype fixed-head coupe, which Donald Healey kept for his own use until the early 1960s.

BN2 AND 100M

By September 1954, production of all the earlier Healey models had ended, allowing the staff in Warwick to concentrate on the Special Test cars and other Austin-Healey projects. Fortunately, the Hundred was selling far better than all the previous cars combined: production totaled more than 10,000 cars through mid-1955. Quite a few were raced, with respectable results; one car even won its class in the 1955 Mobilgas Economy Rally.

The early Hundred, known today by its chassis code, BN1, underwent various running changes through its run, from new two-piece side screens to the substitution of the hypoid-bevel axle from the Austin Westminster for the original A70/A90 unit. In August 1955, all Hundreds received the four-speed taxi gearbox, along with wider front brakes and a longer body-side swage line, facilitating the use of two-tone paint. Those changes prompted a new chassis code: BN2.

1955 Austin-Healey 100M front 3q © 2010 Tony Hisgett CC BY 2.0 Generic
The most visible feature of the Austin-Healey 100M was a louvered bonnet with leather tie-down straps; the same bonnet was optional on standard cars, usually included with the Le Mans engine kit. The 100M was often ordered with two-tone paint as well, although it wasn’t compulsory. (Photo: “Austin Healey 100M 2” © 2010 Tony Hisgett; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

Later that year, the standard BN2 was supplemented by a new model, the 100M. Introduced at the Earls Court show in October, the 100M was presumably intended to provide a cheaper replacement for the 100S, featuring a louvered bonnet, minor suspension modifications, and the Le Mans engine kit, giving 110 hp (82 kW). Priced 10% higher than the standard car, the 100M accounted for 1,159 units through mid-1956, roughly 25% of BN2 production.

Unfortunately, production was down significantly. Although the Hundred had outsold the Triumph TR2, the new TR3 was proving a more difficult opponent. Introduced in October 1955, the TR3 had revamped styling and additional power, giving it a small but significant advantage over the Austin-Healey. It was still more than $300 cheaper than the Hundred and even offered optional 2+2 seating. To match that competition, Healey would have to make some significant changes.


One idea for improving Austin-Healey sales was a long-wheelbase model, known at Warwick as the L-type. Prompted by Donald Healey’s concern that lack of passenger space was costing sales, the L-type had a 2-inch (51mm) longer wheelbase, providing room for a pair of occasional rear seats. Gerry Coker also explored a number of possible updates to the Hundred’s styling, including enclosed headlamps, small tailfins, and louvers in the front fenders to exhaust engine heat (later adopted by some of the competition cars).

1960 Austin-Healey 3000 (BT7) rear seats
In addition to its slightly longer wheelbase, the 2+2 Hundred had a reshaped tonneau area with the rear bulkhead pushed farther back. To provide foot room, the four-seater replaced the two-seater’s twin 6V batteries — normally mounted just ahead of the axle on either side of the driveshaft — with a single 12V battery in the boot. This is actually a 1960 Austin-Healey 3000 (BT7), but the rear seating area is almost identical to that of the four-seat 100-6.

According to Geoff Healey, serious thought was also given to standardizing the 100S engine across the line, which would have given the Hundred a clear performance edge over the TR3. However, Austin management was not enthusiastic; the 100S engine was expensive to produce, requiring a unique block casting to match the aluminum head’s altered stud positions. BMC preferred to modify the Hundred to accommodate the newer Morris-designed C-series six, which was replacing the big four in BMC’s bigger sedans.

Installing the six in the Hundred chassis was not a complex exercise, but the engine itself left much to be desired. While a six-cylinder engine might seem to provide a marketing advantage over the four-cylinder TR3, the C-series was slightly smaller in displacement than the big four and actually had less torque. Worse, the six was considerably heavier than the four — dry weight was over 600 lb (277 kg) — which eroded the Hundred’s power-to-weight ratio.

1957 Austin-Healey 100-6 BN4 engine
The 100-6’s original 1C engine was lifted almost unchanged from the Austin A105. Displacing 2,639 cc (161 cu. in.), the six had four main bearings, two 1.5-inch (38mm) S.U. H4 carburetors, and 8.25:1 compression, giving 102 hp (76 kW) and 142 lb-ft (193 N-m) of torque. For reasons of production economy, the intake manifold was cast as part of the cylinder head, which combined with the galley-type intake ports to limit breathing and tuning potential.

Hoping to cast the new engine in a good light, the Healeys decided to take two six-cylinder cars to Bonneville in August 1956. The original 1953–54 record-setter was fitted with aerodynamic body extensions and an oval grille (once again courtesy of Gerry Coker), along with a heavily modified C-series engine with a new six-port head and separate intake manifold. The 1954 streamliner was also modified extensively and fitted with a supercharged six, producing 292 hp (218 kW).

On the Salt Flats, both cars blew their engines repeatedly, but the endurance car nevertheless set numerous speed records, including a six-hour average of more than 146 mph (235 km/h). The supercharged streamliner, driven by Donald Healey himself, reached speeds of up to 203 mph (327 km/h) — short of the 217 mph (349 km/h) originally projected, but still an impressive figure. It would be the last run for Donald Healey, who had recently turned 58. Afterward, the Healeys’ insurance company, understandably nonplussed by the whole affair, finally persuaded him to leave the risky stuff to others.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) grille badge
At launch, the Austin-Healey 100-6 had a list price of £762 ex works (£1,144 7s with purchase tax) or $3,195 POE in the U.S. While that wasn’t much more expensive than the four-cylinder car it replaced, wire wheels, tonneau cover, and overdrive were now optional. Starting in 1958, U.S. cars were offered in both standard and DeLuxe form, the latter including heater, wire wheels, tonneau cover and overdrive as standard equipment.

The six-cylinder production car went on sale that fall. Christened Austin-Healey 100-6 (and known today by its BN4 chassis code), it completely replaced the four-cylinder BN2. The BN4 was 6.5 inches (165 mm) longer than the BN2 and had the longer-wheelbase chassis and 2+2 seating. Except for its new grille and hood scoop, the BN4 looked much the same as the four-cylinder car, but weight was up about 240 lb (110 kg). Most of that was on the nose, requiring stiffer front springs and a thicker anti-roll bar. As a result, the six-cylinder cars had heavier steering than the fours and a new propensity for initial understeer and dramatic final oversteer.

Press response to the 100-6 was lukewarm. Instead of giving the Healey an edge over the TR3, the six-cylinder engine seemed to be a step backward. While the six-cylinder car’s top speed was similar to the four’s, 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) acceleration took about a second longer than before. Worse, the BN4 still had drum brakes, while the Triumph now offered standard front discs, something the Hundred had yet to offer except on the 100S. Sales of the 100-6 were not significantly better than those of the BN2, amounting to about 5,000 units a year.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) front
Externally, the Austin-Healey 100-6 differed from the Hundred mainly in the nose, which had a new oval grille (inspired by the ones on the 100S and the Bonneville cars) and a chrome-trimmed hood scoop. While the scoop was open, ostensibly to allow cool air into the engine compartment, Geoff Healey later admitted that it was mostly cosmetic.

In response, Healey started work on an alternative: a smaller, cheaper Austin-powered sports car, codenamed Q1 (and later ADO 13). It would emerge in May 1958 as the first Austin-Healey Sprite. The Sprite was one of the last projects Gerry Coker worked on for Healey; in 1957, he moved to the U.S. to become a body engineer for Ford.


In early 1957, the staff in Warwick built a handful of six-cylinder Hundreds for competition. One, built with the reinforced chassis from the 100S, was driven by Tommy Wisdom and his daughter Ann in Italy’s Sestrière Rally in March with indifferent results. Three others, prepared for Austin’s East Coast U.S. distributor, the Hambro Automotive Corporation, ran at Sebring a few weeks later, although only one finished the race, managing second in its class.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) engine
This 1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 has the 26D engine, which featured the six-port head, a detachable aluminum intake manifold, and a pair of 1.75-inch (45mm) S.U. H6 carburetors. Output climbed to 117 hp (87 kW) and 150 lb-ft (203 N-m) of torque, which gave the BN4 better performance than the four-cylinder BN2, if not the 100M or 100S. The owner of this BN6 has retrofitted cruise control, definitely not a factory option.

It was obvious that the C-series engine needed more muscle, so Tommy Wisdom’s car was modified with the high-compression six-port head and new intake manifold created for the Bonneville engines. Wisdom and navigator Cecil Winby took the car to the Mille Miglia in May. Although their final standing was unspectacular, the new engine worked out very well, achieving the second-highest average speed any Austin-Healey had ever managed in that event. The new head and intake manifold became standard on production cars in October, providing more respectable performance.

A month later, the Austin-Healey production line shifted from Longbridge to the MG plant in Abingdon. Although MG and Healey were rivals in the marketplace, the move appears to have been a mostly positive one for both parties. The Healeys had never been entirely satisfied with production at Longbridge (although Geoff Healey later acknowledged that some of the problems stemmed from the tendency of his father and Leonard Lord to make important decisions in private meetings, leaving the Austin staff without clear marching orders) and Donald Healey was friends with MG managing director John Thornley despite Lord’s periodic attempts to foster competition between them. The Healeys apparently also had a good relationship with MG chief engineer Syd Enever, who had been very helpful with the preparation of the Bonneville cars and the Sprite.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) front3q
The 100-6 was 157.5 inches (4,000 mm) long on a 92-inch (2,337mm) wheelbase; overall width was 60.5 inches (1,537 mm), about half an inch (13 mm) wider than the four-cylinder car. Base curb weight was about 2,430 lb (1,102 kg). This archetypal fifties color combination is Florida Green over Ivory White.

In response to dealer requests, a two-seat Hundred (chassis code BN6) was reintroduced in early 1958. When the BN6 was introduced in March, BN4 production temporarily ceased to clear parts inventories at Jensen, but it resumed in September, after which both body styles were offered concurrently. While buyers liked the idea of the two-seater (which is more popular with collectors today), it was far less practical than the 2+2, which sold much better.

In the spring of 1958, Jack Sears and Peter Garnier drove a 100-6 in the RAC Rally and Tulip Rally. Although their final results were unspectacular — fifth in class in the former, DNF in the latter, thanks to a broken distributor — Sears and Garnier nonetheless made a strong showing, suggesting that the six-cylinder car had a promising future in rally competition. Shortly afterward, the BMC Competitions Department in Abingdon, then headed by Marcus Chambers, decided to aggressively campaign the 100-6 in European rally events.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) rear 3q
The Austin-Healey 100-6 two-seater (BN6) retained the BN4’s longer wheelbase, but the rear tonneau area was similar to that of the four-cylinder BN2, with no rear seat and two 6V batteries mounted ahead of the axle. Anyone hoping that the two-seater would be substantially lighter than the BN4 was in for a disappointment; the structural differences were very minor and their curb weights were nearly identical. Note the exterior door handles, introduced on the BN6 and subsequently applied to four-seat models.

As a rally car, the Hundred had both strengths and weaknesses. In racing tune, the six-port C-series engine was reasonably powerful, flexible, and generally reliable. The Healey’s body structure was also exceptionally robust, particularly with the reinforced 100S-type frame — several crews walked away from serious crashes with little more than bumps and scrapes. However, the six-cylinder cars were tiring to drive and could be a real handful on wet, slippery roads. Oversteer was the order of the day, and even expert drivers could end up in the weeds if they didn’t catch a tail slide in time. Rally crews also suffered the same shortcomings that annoyed private owners: too much cabin heat in warm weather, marginal heating in the cold, and generally spotty weather protection.

1959 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN6) side screens
The BN6 two-seater introduced a new style of two-piece Perspex side screen, pictured here. The movable rear section improved ventilation, but annoyed owners and race drivers with its tendency to slide open of its own accord. Production variations meant that some screens sealed much better than others, and rally crews jealously guarded the good ones. Driver Pat Moss later recalled that after a particularly harrowing accident at the 1960 Lyon-Charbonnières Rally — during which her car vaulted into the air and flipped end over end — her first thought was to recover the still-intact side screens to use on her next car!

Nonetheless, over the coming years, the six-cylinder Healeys would establish themselves as fearsome rally competitors. A lengthy list of class victories began in August, when Pat Moss (younger sister of Stirling Moss) and navigator Ann Wisdom took the GT class at the Liège-Rome-Liège Rally, coming in fourth overall and taking the Coupe des Dames. Although one of the other Healey entries crashed, two more took fourth and sixth in class, earning BMC the Manufacturer’s Team Prize.

1957 Austin-Healey 100-6 (BN4) dashboard
The biggest difference between the interiors of four-cylinder Austin-Healey 100s and those of the early six-cylinder roadsters was the dashboard, now covered with vinyl and fitted with a new chrome-trimmed oval instrument panel. Some minor switchgear was shuffled around, but the design changed little until the introduction of the 3000 Mark III convertible in late 1963.

FROM 100 TO 3000

In March 1959, the 100-6 received a new engine, new chassis codes, and a new name: Austin-Healey 3000. Without looking at the emblems, the differences were hard to spot, but they included several welcome improvements. First among those was the engine, the latest 29D version of the C-series six, with a new cylinder block, a larger bore, and a higher compression ratio, bringing displacement to 2,912 cc (178 cu. in.) and output to 124 hp (93 kW) and 162 lb-ft (220 N-m) of torque. The stronger engine was backed with a stronger gearbox and, belatedly, front disc brakes.

1960 Austin-Healey 3000 front 3q
The Austin-Healey 3000 again offered two-seat and 2+2 body styles, now coded BN7 and BT7, respectively. Despite the additional power and better brakes, the 3000 was actually cheaper than the 100-6, at least in the U.S. — a BN7 DeLuxe roadster, for example, cost $18 less than a comparable BN6. This car’s front bumper has been deleted, perhaps in an effort to lighten the nose.

The 3000 had noticeably stronger performance than the 100-6: 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) now took about 10 seconds while top speed was nearly 115 mph (184 km/h). (Competition and works rally cars were naturally even faster, thanks to a revised exhaust manifold, a hotter camshaft, and larger S.U. H8 carburetors.) The list price was up to £829 ex works (£1,175 10s 10d with purchase tax), $3,051 POE in the U.S., but the 3000 was more popular than the 100-6; sales improved by more than 30%.

1960 Austin-Healey 3000 (BN6) rear 3q
All Austin-Healey 3000s had Girling front disc brakes of 11-inch (279mm) diameter, providing much improved stopping power. Production cars retained the 100-6’s 11-inch (279mm) drums in back, but the works rally cars also had rear discs. This car’s flat reflector lenses mark it as a late 1960 model; early 3000s had pointed lenses, but they ran afoul of U.S. lighting laws and had to be replaced.

The 3000’s rally debut came in June, when BMC entered three cars in the 1959 Alpine Rally, John Gott and Chris Tooley taking second in their class. Similar victories followed at the Liège and the German Rally, where Pat Moss and Ann Wisdom won their class and achieved second place overall, claiming the Coupe des Dames for good measure.

The 1960 season was even better. The ‘big’ Healeys, as they were now known following the introduction of the Sprite, won their class in the Circuit of Ireland, the Geneva Rally, the Tulip Rally, the Alpine Rally, and the Liège, which Moss and Wisdom also won outright. The season closed with 3000s taking first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, and 10th in their class at the 1960 RAC Rally, also claiming the Team Prize. Pat Moss and Ann Wisdom took the European Ladies Rally Championship and were named drivers of the year.

1961 Austin-Healey 3000 (BT7) Mark II badge
Vertical grille bars and this attractive cloisonné badge are the only external features that identify the three-carburetor Mark II Austin Healey 3000.

In early 1961, the 3000 was upgraded to Mark II form, which meant little more than a new grille and a revised 29E engine with three carburetors, providing 132 hp (98 kW). The extra power gave a slightly higher top speed — an increasingly academic point on public roads — but the extra carburetors did little for acceleration. Six months after introduction, the Mark II also received a new shift linkage allowing a centrally mounted shifter, along with an insulated fiberglass gearbox cover intended to reduce cabin noise and heat.

While it wasn’t a great advantage on the street, the three-carburetor engine made for another superb rally season. Pat Moss and Ann Wisdom took their class at the Tulip Rally in May and the big Healeys went on to five more class victories, including the Morley brothers’ outright win at the Alpine Rally in June. The 3000 racked up an additional eight class victories in 1962, with Pat Moss and new partner Pauline Mayman also claiming the Ladies’ European Rally Championship. (Ann Wisdom had left the team after her marriage to driver Peter Riley the previous year.) Big Healeys took second and third in their class at Sebring in 1960, but three attempts at Le Mans ended DNF in 1960, 1961, and 1962.

1961 Austin-Healey 3000 Mark II (BT7) engine
The 29E engine in the Austin-Healey 3000 Mark II was still 2,912 cc (178 cu. in.), but it had a hotter camshaft and a new intake manifold with three 1.5-inch (38mm) S.U. HS4 carburetors, giving 132 hp (98 kW) and 167 lb-ft (226 N-m) of torque. Works rally cars got three 2.0-inch (5 mm) S.U. HD8 carburetors and an aluminum cylinder head; the latter didn’t really benefit power, but trimmed a useful 35 lb (16 kg) from the nose.


Despite its impressive rally record, by late 1961, the 3000’s showroom performance had dropped off dramatically. Although 40% cheaper than the glamorous new E-type Jaguar, the Austin Healey’s base price had crept up to more than $3,400, which made its troublesome side curtains and spotty weather protection that much more difficult to accept. Even much cheaper sports cars like the MGB, Datsun Fairlady, and Triumph TR-4 now had roll-up windows.

1966 Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III (BJ8) front 3q
All Austin-Healey 3000 convertibles had a curved windshield with pivoting vent windows. The separate parking and turn signal lamps in the front fenders mark this car as a late North American Mark III; the lights were changed several times to comply with new U.S. lighting regulations. Note the vertical grille bars, introduced with the Mark II.

In early 1962, BMC addressed these complaints by introducing a new body style: the Sports Convertible, chassis code BJ7. Offered only as a 2+2, the convertible featured a new windshield, a new folding top, and proper wind-up windows. At the same time, the engine traded its three carburetors for an easier-to-tune pair of 1.75-inch (45mm) S.U. HS6s.

The BN7 and BT7 roadster body styles were both gone by summer, but the rally team retained the BN7 through the rest of the 1963 season, collecting more class victories at the Monte Carlo Rally, the Tulip Rally, the Liège, and the RAC Rally.

1966 Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III (BJ8) rear 3q
The late Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III chassis had curved frame rails, allowing room for longer (and thus softer) rear springs than used on previous Healeys. The Panhard rod was replaced with twin radius rods for axle location. Note the dual exhausts, added with the 29K engine, and the amber turn signal flashers on either side of the decklid. These replaced the original reflector lenses in early 1965, another measure required for U.S. regulatory compliance.

The introduction of the convertible perked up 3000 sales somewhat, but they remained well below those of the early Mark I cars. In October 1963, the Mark II was upgraded to Mark III form, chassis code BJ8, which featured a revamped engine with bigger carburetors and a dual exhaust system. The big news was a revamped interior; intended to take the 3000 upscale, it featured a wood-trimmed dashboard, a center console, and a racy-looking but confusing array of toggle switches. The changes made the BJ8 a bit heavier than its predecessors, but it was faster than all of them except the 100S, capable of 0-60 mph (0-97 km/h) in less than 10 seconds and a top speed of nearly 120 mph (192 km/h). Base price was only about $30 higher than the BJ7 DeLuxe, although wire wheels reverted to the options list.

The rally team adopted the BJ8 in 1964, adding even more luster to an already impressive record. Pat Moss was gone — in March, she married Saab driver Erik Carlsson and defected to the Saab team — but the Morley brothers, Rauno Aaltonen, and Timo Makinen took six class victories, winning the Austrian Alpine Rally outright.

1966 Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III (BJ8) engine
The final Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III had the 29K version of the C-series six, with revised cam timing and two 2.0-inch (51mm) S.U. HD8 carburetors in place of the late Mark II car’s HS6s. With dual exhausts, the 29K made 148 hp (110 kW) and 165 lb-ft (224 N-m) (sometimes quoted as 150 hp/112 kW and 173 lb-ft/235 N-m), making it the most powerful engine ever fitted to a regular production Healey.

Although the big Healey retained the Mark III name and BJ8 chassis code for the remainder of its run, the 3000 received additional modifications in May 1964, including a new frame and a heavily revised rear suspension, intended to improve axle location and ride. There were also various lighting changes to comply with changing U.S. laws; about 80% of production went to the States, only about one in 20 cars remaining in the U.K.

Around this time, Healey developed a fixed-head coupe body style intended to be sold alongside the convertible. Geoff and Donald Healey designed the coupe themselves with the help of Doug Thorpe, and a single prototype was assembled in Warwick, using the modified chassis developed for the 12 Hours of Sebring, with four-wheel disc brakes and a detuned racing engine with about 170 hp (127 kW). BMC chairman George Harriman liked the coupe, commissioning Austin stylist Dick Burzi to refine and productionize the design. A second prototype was built, but plans for production collapsed when Harriman saw Jensen’s exorbitant estimate for tooling the new body. The project was canceled, although the Healeys subsequently bought both prototypes for their own use.

1966 Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III (BJ8) dashboard
Along with its more powerful engine, the Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III had new instruments, walnut trim on the dashboard, and a center console. The array of switches to the right of the tachometer includes the overdrive, starter, wipers, and lights; telling them apart at a glance takes practice.

(During this period, BMC also considered another coupe as a possible replacement for the big Healey. Known as the ADO30, it was based on a Pininfarina-built coupe developed by three design students, Michael Conrad, Pio Manzù, and Henner Werner, for a 1961 Automobile Year contest. While the original concept car was based on an Austin-Healey 3000 platform, the ADO30 was intended to be powered by the Rolls-Royce FB60 engine — about which we’ll have more to say below — and use BMC’s Hydrolastic suspension system. The ADO30’s development continued in fits and starts for several years before it was finally canceled in 1967.)


From a practical standpoint, the 3000 Mark III was the best of the Austin-Healeys, but sales continued to fall. For all its incremental changes, the big Healey’s basic styling was now almost 10 years old and it took a careful eye to distinguish the latest version from its progenitor. We suspect that familiarity was becoming a significant handicap, particularly in fashion-conscious markets like California, which accounted for nearly half of all big Healey sales.

After the cancellation of the fixed-head coupe, BMC presented a new plan: replacing the 3000 with a six-cylinder version of the MGB that could be sold in Austin-Healey and MG versions. Both versions (known as the ADO 51 and 52, respectively) would offer both drophead and fixed-head coupe body styles, allowing BMC to better amortize the tooling for the soon-to-be-released MGB GT coupe.

From a corporate standpoint, the ADO 51/52 project made perfect sense. The Austin-Healey and MGB were built in the same factory and there was already similar commonality between the smaller Austin-Healey Sprite and the MG Midget. Nonetheless, the Healeys were very dubious. Budget constraints meant that the two versions would differ only slightly and both would be obvious derivatives of the MGB. Moreover, after working with MG’s Syd Enever on ADO 51/52 development, Geoff Healey concluded that stuffing the heavy C-series engine in the MGB was a mistake. Donald Healey told BMC in no uncertain terms that he would not put his name on the project and the ADO 51 was finally canceled, although the ADO 52 survived, emerging in 1967 as the MGC.

The demise of the ADO 51 left the thorny question of what to do about the 3000. Aside from its shrinking sales, the existing BJ8 car could not easily meet the new U.S. federal safety and emissions standards slated to take effect in January 1968. The long-term future of the C-series six was also in doubt. Although a lighter seven main bearing version was in development for the MGC and Austin 3 litre, the only other BMC cars to use the existing four-bearing engine were the aging Austin A110 Westminster and its Wolseley 6/100 cousin, both of which would expire by 1968.

At the suggestion of Austin officials, Donald Healey explored the possibility of revamping the 3000 to accept a new engine: the 3,909 cc (239 cu. in.) FB60, an all-aluminum six designed and built by Rolls-Royce. BMC and Rolls-Royce had signed a contract back in 1962 for BMC to buy the FB60 for its large cars, but the only production model to actually use the aluminum engine was Austin’s Vanden Plas Princess 4 Litre R, which had been a commercial disappointment. As a result, BMC had never purchased anything close to the originally agreed upon number of engines, leaving Rolls with a good deal of excess capacity.

1968 Austin-Healey 4000 FB60 engine © 2006 Storm Bear (used with permission)
The Rolls-Royce FB60 engine was a six-cylinder intake-over-exhaust (IOE or F-head) engine with overhead intake and side exhaust valves. Developed in the late 1950s, it was distantly related to the B40 and B60 engines used in many military vehicles, although it was developed specifically for passenger car use. Rolls engineers toyed with a DOHC version, good for 268 hp (200 kW) or more with three carburetors, but it never reached production. (Photo: “Austin Healey 4000 with Rolls Royce Princess Engine” © 2006 Storm Bear; used with permission)

In the fall of 1966, Healey engineers widened a BJ8 convertible by 6 inches (152 mm) and installed the engine, automatic transmission, and rear axle from a Princess 4 Litre R. To those, the team added a new padded dashboard and door panels, a collapsible steering column, new seats, and other features required by U.S. regulations. The changes transformed the car. The FB60 had never been intended for sports car duty, but it was some 160 lb (73 kg) lighter than the C-series engine and even in a mild state of tune offered a healthy 175 hp (131 kW) and 218 lb-ft (297 N-m) of torque. The FB60 was also refined and quiet in a way the C-series could never match. The re-engined car was much easier to drive, too, with a more comfortable driving position, a better ride, and more secure handling, thanks to the wider track and superior weight distribution.

Austin executives were very impressed when the Healeys presented the modified car in Longbridge in early 1967. BMC’s cost analysis found that the FB60-engined car would be no more expensive to build than the 3000 while elevating the big Healey to a new level of luxury and refinement. BMC commissioned six additional prototypes, which were assigned the code number ADO 24. The production version, to be called Austin-Healey 4000, was expected to replace the 3000 in early 1968.

1968 Vanden Plas Princess 4 Litre R front 3q © 2011 Graham Robertson CC BY 2.0 Generic
The Vanden Plas Princess 4 Litre R was the sole result of the collaboration between BMC and Rolls-Royce and the only BMC production car to use the FB60 engine. Originally conceived as an entry-level Bentley, the 4 Litre R was based on the Austin Princess 3 Litre, but it had different styling and a luxurious interior, trimmed by Vanden Plas (a London coachbuilder Austin had acquired in 1946). The 4 Litre R was quite expensive (£1,994 in the U.K., about $6,700 in the U.S.), and sales were mediocre: 6,555 cars between 1964 and 1968. Surprisingly, about two-thirds were sold in the U.S. (Photo: “1968 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R” © 2011 Graham Robertson; used under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

Unfortunately, the ADO 24 was canceled less than six months later. There were several reasons, the most pressing of which was probably BMC’s increasingly grim financial condition. Another factor was that the FB60 turned out not to be available in the expected numbers. Although Rolls-Royce engineers were aware of the ADO 24 and had worked with the Healeys on its development, Rolls-Royce management had apparently concluded that BMC was unlikely to order many more engines than it already had, so the factory in Crewe had already begun disposing of the tooling. Geoff Healey also suspected that the ADO 24 ran into significant internal opposition from Jaguar’s Sir William Lyons, who had gained a seat on the board after the 1966 merger of BMC and Jaguar. The Austin-Healey 4000 would have given the E-type a run for its money, offering comparable performance for some £700 (about $2,000) less.

The Healeys retained the original FB60-engined car and later finished the two partially completed prototypes at the family’s home in Cornwall at their own expense. All three cars were eventually sold to private collectors. Geoff Healey believed there was also a fourth chassis, although its ultimate fate is unknown.

1968 Austin-Healey 4000 front 3q © 2006 Storm Bear (used with permission)
This is the third ADO 24 (Austin-Healey 4000) prototype, completed by the Healeys after the project’s cancellation. Like the initial prototype, it’s been widened by about 6 inches (15 cm), but it retains the 3000’s hood scoop (deleted on the original car) and uses a mostly standard 3000 fascia, albeit without wood trim. While the first prototype had a Borg-Warner Model 8 automatic transmission, the other two cars used the all-synchro four-speed gearbox from the contemporary E-type Jaguar, perhaps because the FB60 exceeded the torque capacity of the old Austin gearbox. (Photo: “Austin Healey 4000 with Rolls Royce Princess Engine” © 2006 Storm Bear; used with permission)

It’s an open question whether the Rolls-Royce engine would have been enough to resuscitate big Healey sales. Despite its “Powered by Rolls-Royce” badges, the 4000 would have looked much like the 3000: new wine in an old bottle. Some of those who drove the prototypes also wondered if the 4000 might have been too refined for its own good, more of a boulevardier than a real sports car.


Unable to meet U.S. motor vehicle standards, the Austin-Healey 3000 expired in December 1967, although a final car was completed offline about three months later.

In May 1968, BMC merged with Leyland Motors to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation, chaired by Leyland’s Donald Stokes. Hoping to bring the corporation’s financial hemorrhaging under control, Stokes began terminating BMC’s agreements with consultants like Healey and John Cooper. The 3000 was already dead by then and the smaller Sprite would follow in 1970 (although its MG Midget sibling would survive through 1979).

In 1969, Kjell Qvale of San Francisco’s British Motor Car Distributors — one of the world’s largest Austin-Healey distributors — took over Jensen Motors, which had been struggling since the retirement of the Jensen brothers a few years earlier. Knowing that the Healeys’ contract with British Leyland was expiring, Qvale suggested that they join him at Jensen to create a replacement for the Austin-Healey 3000. In 1970, Donald and Geoff Healey became Jensen board members, leading to the creation of the Jensen-Healey in 1972.

1953 Austin-Healey 100 rear
Despite all his early doubts about the design, Donald Healey eventually declared that Gerry Coker’s original Hundred was the best-looking of the breed. The final Austin-Healey 3000 Mark III was not a great stylistic departure from its 1952 ancestor, and it may have been for the best that it was spared the indignity of 1970s U.S. safety standards.

As tends to be the case with BMC cars, production figures for the big Healeys are a complicated subject, but the total for all versions was more than 73,000 units. About 44,000 of those were 3000s, with the remainder split roughly evenly between the four-cylinder cars and the 100-6. Added to the Sprite, that brings total Austin-Healey production to about 200,000 cars between 1953 and 1970 — not a lot by Austin standards, but impressive for a small range of sports cars designed by a handful of people in a tiny company.

While the Sprite was the better seller, it was the Hundred and 3000 that made the Austin-Healey name and they’re the ones most people remember. Donald Healey built cars both before and afterward, but if not for the big Healeys, we suspect the rest would be little more than historical footnotes today. Along with its Triumph rivals, the big Healey also remains a standard-bearer for British sports cars: pugnacious and eccentric, rugged and direct, always ready to back up its racy image on a racetrack or rally course. (The 100M, for example, was quite close to the cars that ran at Le Mans in 1953, lacking only their aluminum bumpers, oversize fuel tanks, and heavy-duty brake linings.) The big Healey wasn’t necessarily easy to drive or live with, but it was the real thing, and that still counts for a lot.



Special thanks to Martin Alford, John Baker, Clive Barker, Storm Bear, Stephen Kingsbury, Peter Roses, Chuck Forward, and Tina Van Curen.


In 2012, we licensed a condensed version of this story to the Angie’s List classic cars channel. However, Angie’s List had no connection with the original article.


Information on the careers of Donald and Geoff Healey and the development of the Austin-Healey 100, 100-6, 3000, and 4000 came from the following sources: Keith Adams, “Connections: Jensen,” and “The Whole Story,” AROnline, 25 August 2011, www.aronline. co. uk, accessed 29 February 2012; Gary G. Anderson, Roger Moment, Austin-Healey 100, 100-6, 3000 Restoration Guide (Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Co, 2000); The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, “1953-1967 Austin-Healey 100 and 3000,” HowStuffWorks.com, 20 August 2007, auto.howstuffworks. com/ 1953-1967-austin-healey-100-and-3000.htm, accessed 10 March 2012; “Austin Healey 100 and the Triumph TR3,” Australian Motor Manual 15 September 1956, pp. 22-25; John Baker, “Healey 100-3000,” and “History of the Company,” Austin Memories, 2006, www.austinmemories. com, accessed 21 August 2010; John Bolster, “John Bolster Tests the Healey ‘Hundred,'” Autosport 24 October 1952; Peter Browning and Les Needham, Healeys and Austin-Healeys including Jensen-Healey, Second Edition (Sparkford, Yeovil: J.H. Haynes & Co., Ltd., 1976); John Chatham, “The Austin Healey 4000,” Classic and Sportscar Magazine Vol. 10, No. 5 (August 1991); Anders Ditlev Clausager, Original Austin-Healey 100, 100-Six and 3000, Second Edition (St. Paul, MN: Bay View Books/MBI Publishing Co., 2002); Marty Clear, “The man who designed COOL,” Coyote’s Classic Cars, 2 May 2005, www.dcoyote. org/ healey_history.shtml, accessed 10 February 2012; Brad Constant, “Austin Healey involved in racing’s deadliest crash sells for more than $1 million,” Autoweek 2 December 2011, www.autoweek. com, accessed 9 February 2012; Mike Covello, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002, Second Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2001); S.C.H. Davis, “Profile: 1954 Austin-Healey: A sports car for the young and for the young at heart,” The Autocar 1 April 1955; “Donald Healey,” Austin Healey Club, 2012, www.austinhealeyclub. com, accessed 8 February 2012; “Donald Healey and the History of the Big Healeys,” Unique Cars and Parts, n.d., www.uniquecarsandparts. com.au, accessed 8 February 2012; Craig Fitzgerald, “Donald Healey,” Hemmings Sports & Exotic Car #8 (April 2006), p. 56; Tim Harry, “Classic car reviews: Austin-Healey 100-6,” Helium.com, 11 January 2011, www.helium. com, accessed 29 March 2012; Geoffrey Healey, Healey, The Specials (London: Gentry Books, 1980); Steven Kingsbury/Air Tight Productions, “A Conversation with Gerry Coker: Austin-Healey Style,” 3 July 2008, YouTube, “Gerry Coker Part 01,” https://youtu.be/D-68_4xzHo0 and “Gerry Coker Part 02,” https://youtu.be/ANWoaOZPN9I, uploaded 12 April 2011, accessed 10 February 2012; “History and Specification: Austin-Healey 100/6,” Vanilla Classics, n.d., www.vanillaclassics. com/ car.php? v=12, accessed 19 March 2012; David Knowles, MG: The Untold Story (Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1997); Tom McCahill, “McCahill Drives the Austin Healey,” Mechanix Illustrated November 1953, pp. 96-99, 209; Alex Meredith, “SIA Interview: Donald Healey,” Special Interest Autos #67 (February 1982), pp. 58-62; “Over the hills and fast away” [advertisement] The Motor 4 March 1959, p. 27; Frederick Pearce, “The Big Healey Stretch,” Auto Magazine August 1973, englishcars. com/ austinhealey/ 4000/ ah4000.html, accessed 21 March 2012; “Road & Track Road Test No. F-3-56: Austin-Healey 100M,” Road & Track Vol. 7, No. 1 (September 1955), n.p.; “Road & Track Road Test No. F-11-55: Austin-Healey ‘100S,'” Road & Track Vol. 8, No. 5 (January 1957); “Sale 19293, Lot 433,” Bonhams, 1 December 2011, www.bonhams. com/ eur/auction/19293/lot/433/, accessed 9 February 2012; “Setting the pace for tomorrow” [advertisement], The Motor 13 March 1957, p. 25; “The Autocar road tests: Austin-Healey 3000 (No. 1852),” The Autocar 22 December 1961, pp. 1038A–1038D; “We haven’t yet built a sportscar capable of flight” [advertisement], Autocar 3 September 1965, p. 12, Jonathan Wood, “Obituary: Geoffrey Healey,” The Independent 16 May 1994, www.independent. co. uk, accessed 15 February 2012; Walt Woron, “It’s Really That Good!” Motor Trend Vol. 5, No. 11 (November 1953), pp. 22-25; the Wikipedia® entries for Pat Moss (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat_Moss, accessed 20 March 2012), Donald Healey (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Healey, accessed 8 February 2012), the Donald Healey Motor Company (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Healey_Motor_Company, accessed 11 February 2012) and Geoffrey Healey (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Healey, accessed 8 February 2012); and the Healey Museum website, www.healeymuseum.nl, accessed 10 February 2012.

Additional background information on other BMC vehicles of this period came from “1950 Austin A70 Hereford,” Autofiles.org, n.d., www.autofiles. org, accessed 26 February 2012; “A Resume of the Origin and Life of Vanden Plas,” Vanden Plas Owners’ Club, 2004, www.vpoc.info/ History.htm, accessed 10 March 2012; Keith Adams, “Fireball XL5 – BMC’s broken arrow,” AROnline, 25 June 2011, www.aronline. co. uk, accessed 2 April 2012; Keith Adams and Declan Berridge, “In-house designs: Rolls-Royce projects,” AROnline, 25 June 2011, www.aronline. co. uk, accessed 2 April 2012; John Baker, “A90 Atlantic,” “A90/A95 Westminster,” “A99-A110 Westminster,” “Austin A105,” “Austin Taxi,” “Austin 3 Litre Saloon (ADO61),” “Princess 4 Litre ‘R,'” and “Vanden Plas,” Austin Memories, n.d., www.austinmemories. com, accessed 25 February to 30 March 2012; Martin Cannell and Craig Tiano, “A brief history of the 4 litre R,” Vandenplas.com, 2000, www.vandenplas. com, accessed 10 March 2012; Paul Niedermeyer, “Automotive History: The Curious F-Head Engine,” Curbside Classic, 20 February 2011, www.curbsideclassic. com/ automotive-histories/ automotive-history-the-curious-f-head-engine/, last accessed 2 April 2012; “Riley Pathfinder,” GB Classic Cars, 2011, www.gbclassiccars. co. uk/ riley_pathfinder.html, accessed 10 March 2012; the Wikipedia entries for the Austin A70 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_A70, accessed 26 February 2012), Austin 16 hp (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_16_hp, accessed 26 February 2012), the Austin Atlantic (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_Atlantic, accessed 26 February 2012), the Austin Champ (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_Champ, accessed 10 March 2012), the Austin FX3 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_FX3, accessed 29 February 2012), the BMC C-series engine (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMC_C-Series_engine, accessed 30 March 2012), and the Wolseley 6/99 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolseley_6/99, accessed 30 March 2012); and an email to the author from John Baker on 8 March 2012.

Exchange rate values cited in the text represent the approximate equivalency of British and U.S. currency at the contemporary exchange rate ($2.80/£), not U.S. suggested retail prices, which are cited separately. Please note that all exchange rate equivalencies cited in the text are approximate, provided solely for general reference; this is an automotive history, not a treatise on currency trading or the value of money, and nothing in this article should be taken as financial advice of any kind!



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  1. Excellent story Aaron I never managed to get a Healey always wanted one having owne a few mechanical donors in the shape of Westies and an Isis which were good fast comfortable sedans in their day. Healeys pretty much mirrored Westminsters for new developments.

  2. The Healey was, to my mind the most beautiful of 1950’s production sports cars. I never found the TR3 attractive,and the MGA looked nice, but nothing was as instantly appealing as the Healey, especially with the two-tone paint. I went to a lot of SCCA races in the late 50’s and early 60’s, and they were quite common on the tracks. And, now a correction; the driver mentioned is Maurice Gatsonides, not Gastonides. Beyond his motorsport career, he is infamous for his invention, the “Gatso” speed camera, which all sporting drivers hate.

    1. Thanks for the correction — I’ve amended the text. I had no idea he developed the Gatso cameras, although that will certainly help to remember the proper spelling of his name.

  3. Nice article – but a couple of errors in 100S caption. All 100 cars had the swage line – from the BN2 on it continued behind the rear wheel. And the standard 100S colour scheme was Old English White over Lobelia (dark blue) not black.

    1. Thanks for the clarifications. The paint color issue had puzzled me a bit: the lower color looked like dark blue to me, but the paint combination chart in Anderson and Moment’s restoration guide described it (for whatever reason) as white over black. Since each of my computer monitors tends to render colors differently, I was wondering if it was an optical illusion or if it was just a particularly bluish shade of black. I have several print references handy, but unfortunately all their photos of the 100S were in black and white…

    2. Excellent article, well researched and written however, actually Anderson and Moment do have the 100S colour correct in their book [i]Austin – Healey 100/100-6/3000 Restoration Guide[/i].
      Page 14 center column.
      [i]Most of the cars were painted in “United States” racing colours of white over blue, using a distinctive Lobelia Blue for the lower panel.[/i]

      1. Ahh — I was looking at the color chart and missed that reference. In any case, I’ve corrected the text.

    3. The swage line on the side did not extend past the rear wheel of ALL BN2s but came on stream well into that production. Since most four cylinder cars were BN1s the full swage line is thus a rarity before the six cylinder cars. More importantly is the front fender opening, cut much higher on the BN2 for a more rakish look with additional clearance for the wheel in turning. Healeys were slim sided relative to their tread width and that wheel stuck way out when steered.

  4. This article led me to look up more info on the FB60 engine, which I’d been somewhat aware of. I was really intrigued to learn that it was an F-head. Does anyone know why it was?

    The other F-head that came to mind for me was the Willys “Hurricane” engine, which Barney Roos designed by making an existing flathead engine into an F-head. In that case, he was trying to get more power on a very tight budget. A full OHV engine would have been ideal, but given the tight budget, moving the intake valves into the head was more cost-effective than moving the exhausts.

    Rolls-Royce was presumably working on the FB60 some years after Roos was designing the Hurricane, and they wouldn’t have had his cost constraints.

    I also can’t help thinking that the MGC would have been much better with the FB60.

    You mentioned that Healey wasn’t happy with Jensen’s quality control, an issue that also came up with the Volvo P1800.

    1. This is a very interesting question, and it led me to do some additional research and make a small addition to the text (about the abortive ADO30 project, which was also slated to use the FB60).

      The FB60 was developed around 1958. Around that time, Rolls-Royce apparently started being interested in doing a smaller, cheaper (relatively speaking) luxury car, probably to be sold primarily as a Bentley. At the time, Rolls was still using IOE sixes in its other cars (although the V8 was already in development), as well as the B40 and B60 engines used in various trucks and military vehicles. My assumption is that Rolls conceived the FB60 as a smaller, lighter engine that could use at least some of the existing tooling. Since the point of the exercise was to make a cheaper car, not having to invest heavily in new equipment would have been desirable, even for Rolls-Royce.

      I don’t know exactly how much architecture the FB60 shares with the B60 used in earlier Rolls and Bentley passenger cars. It has the same bore, a much shorter stroke, and an aluminum block (the B60 already had an aluminum head). While the FB60 may depart from the earlier engine in other respects, it seems pretty clear that the B60 was the starting point for it.

      Incidentally, Rolls and BMC considered a bunch of possible Bentley-branded smaller cars, including the Bentley Java (which would have been quite similar to the Princess 4-Litre R and probably inspired the styling of the latter), the Bentley Bengal (based on the Austin 3-litre), and a coupe called the Bentley Alpha, based on the ADO30. All would have used the FB60 engine.

    2. The web has someplace a long article on Rolls Royce engines by one of their principals in the engineering ranks. In it there was a statement that the FB alloy F-head was dimensionally close and sometimes identical to the last 4.25 liter RR iron six. Of course, Rolls had already forsaken sixes for their huge V8. Perhaps this explains the retrograde F-head being found on the units being supplied to the Princess?

      1. In the late fifties and early sixties, Rolls-Royce seriously considered doing one or more cheaper Bentley models as a way of boosting sales volume and making up for slower sales of the ‘senior’ cars (analogous to Packard’s move with the original One-Twenty in 1935). There was the Bentley Burma, which I believe ended up being more or less the ancestor of the Silver Shadow, followed by the Bentley Java (based on the Austin Princess 3-Litre) and the Bentley Bengal, which would have been a Bentley version of the Princess 4 Litre R.

        As far as I know, the rationale of the FB was to give these cheaper cars (at least the latter two of which would have had a lot of BMC hardware) proper Rolls/Bentley engines without the expense of tooling a new ‘small’ engine for those cars. The F-head six might have been retrograde technologically, but it compared pretty well with contemporary OHV sixes in terms of output and the DOHC version, which never got past the prototype stage, would have given the Jaguar XK engine a run for its money. So, it made a fair bit of sense.

        Of course, for various reasons, none of the Bentley cars ever materialized and a lot of Rolls-Royce’s FB capacity went unused.

  5. -One of the first cars I drove, illegaly, of course, was a friend’s 100-4. It had a three speed transmission with electric overdrive that was supposed to make it a five speed.
    -The shift pattern was also reversed from US normal, that is, second and third

    1. Yes, the shift pattern on the BN1 cars was very odd. I think they resolved that with the BN2, with the taxi gearbox.

    2. . . . . . because, at age 17, it was the first antique auto I helped restore (I didn’t have my own antique car for another year) and the beginning of my 45 year involvement with antique vehicles (cars, motorcycles and bicycles). I still remember the car, helping the owner sand down the primer for painting.

  6. Well, the initial prototype was created by essentially slicing a BJ8 body in half and splicing in a 6-inch section. If it had made production, I suppose they might have come up with a new grille — it would probably have been relatively cheap to do. Still, it’s hard to avoid the feeling that the 1953-vintage design had been nipped and tucked a few too many times by then.

    1. Hi Aaron, the above comment was mine.

      Last weekend I actually saw the featured 4000 prototype, as well as Lance Macklin’s Le Mans NOJ 393 a replica of one of the streamliners amongst dozens of other A-H’s at a car show. I’d say the 4000 looks better in the flesh, but it is still a significantly wider car that would not have the same sporty feel of the original.

      1. The people who’ve driven it tend to say the same thing. It was reportedly a lot more comfortable than the 3000, with a better driving position and more elbow room, but felt and sounded less sporty, particularly with the automatic. Perhaps too civilized for its own good.

  7. Another excellent article – just wanted to say how much I appreciate the effort that goes into this and the skill at presenting it in an interesting and cogent manner.

    And no, I don’t want to borrow any money.


  8. Aaron,

    Will you be moving forward with this amazing historical portrait, looking at the Jensen Healey?

    1. I will, although I decided that three Healeys in a row might be a bit much.

  9. Familiarity with early Healey Hundreds suggests there were at least two front wheel arches during their production. The red one depicted, a BN1 is a very much chunkier section than the BN2. It might have fouled the tire (tyre) at steering lock at least with the tall spec tires of the era. The car officially got a larger valence that looked sleeker as a running change. The difference in height causes problems in terminating the two toned flanks which are often found on LeMans replica cars. The swage line does not truly intersect the top of the arch on early ones but requires a looped return, which anyhow works out okay in practice.

    1. Thanks for the info. There are a lot of minor details that I’m only able to touch on in these stories.

      1. I’d hope I had mentioned once before referencing a Mustang article, but will enjoy doing so again. Your monographs are amazingly concise distillations of complex stories, done with great adherence to, and respect for facts. I recommend them to all my friends.

  10. The “Haldane” was a rather proper looking replica Hundred out of fiberglas with Ford Kent motivation, differing only in a lower hood line. The “Harrier” was an upmarket effort with Rover V8 and independent suspension that I believe Geoff Healey was pleased to endorse. Both were better looking, or at least more authentic appearing than the 4000 prototype with the half a foot widened body shell. Sad that larger customers and side impact requirements dealt such a blow to the original aesthetics of the first car. Look to the Ford GT to understand how an enlargement if required should be undertaken in EVERY dimension so that proportions that initially delighted can be maintained.
    One must mention in passing the Saxon and Sebring kit cars that hint of the Healey legacy in rather unconvincing ways.

  11. The Healey Hundred has more shape in its flanks than people realize. It swells in width at the cockpit and is already narrowing over the rear fender. That shows Jerry’s modern three dimensional spatial thinking.
    To have gotten more width where necessary for the cockpit without destroying the lithe appearance from the three quarter view might only have required wedging out the fore-body. That would have allowed a front track perhaps 2 inches wider than the rear, whereas it is actually a half inch shy of the rear on the existing cars. At that point it would have virtually equalled the later Jag E-type series III cars track. The span of the headlamps of the Healey could have been increased without visual harm though not by a half a foot.

  12. In 1972 & 73, I worked in the service department of Donald Healey Motor Co in Warwick and was lucky enough to drive one of the manual 4000R’s The car had been re-chassed following a road accident by the then owner, a gentleman who lived in Wales, I think. I road tested the car over several hundred miles and so was able to understand the car well. I had driven a number of E-types up to that time and the comparison was most interesting. The 4000R had excellent road holding and outstanding handling. The acceleration was good as the engine revved well, the gearchange and ratios good too. Performance was good, I saw over 125mph on a number of occasions. The car braked well and overall, I enjoyed the car more than E-types. I would be happy to hear from anyone else who drove these cars and hear their views.

    1. Thanks for your thoughts, Tony. The consensus of all the accounts I’ve heard of people who’ve had the chance to drive the 4000 was that it was a definite improvement in all-around performance (although one can easily imagine the carping the automatic would have provoked at the time). I think the downfall of the car, had it made production, would have been the styling. Combining the new engine with the fixed-head coupe might have been a different story, although then the 4000 would most definitely have been an E-type rival…

  13. Aaron

    I have tried in vain to contact Tony Pomfret for the last four years and now find he has contacted you recently. As he drove my 4000 when in the UK I would love to talk to him, may I have his email or could you send him mine so we can chat please.

    Regards Peter Rowland Melbourne Australia

  14. i thoroughly enjoyed reading your well researched article and it got me thinking about some unexplained unusual features and history facts surrounding our 100/6 BN6. We recently bought her as my wife spent much of her youth around the Warwick area and she happens to be of the same vintage as the car!
    According to the build records the car was built in June ’57 but according to a copy of the original owner log book was not registered to her first owner until January ’58. This in itself is unusual as cars were generally built to order.
    This brings me to the next unusual feature that she was supplied to her first owner with Dunlop disc brakes on front and rear axles. Trying to find any documented information about the 100/6 on disc brakes seems to be a bit of a best kept secret so I am wondering if anyone reading this might have some answers?
    I recently spoke to the UK A-H Club marque model expert who said he was aware of only two other examples, both of which are BN6, here in the UK and he referred to them as being the ‘homologation specials’ of which he said approximately 40-50 cars were retro equipped by the Healey Works at Warwick and at a time in ’58 when much Works backed rallying was taking place. Are any examples of these BN6 cars known to exist in the U.S. Or other markets?
    If some facts could be brought to light, then this would make for an interesting twist to the Big Healey story

  15. What was the weight of the 2660 cc 4 cylinder engine out of the BN1 and BN2?I’am considering putting a 427 CI Chevrolet V8 into my BN2

    1. That’s a good question — I don’t think I’ve ever seen a figure for the four, and because the BN4 was also a physically larger car, simply comparing BN2 and BN4 figures doesn’t give much indication. The C-series engine was a big sucker, though (more than 600 pounds in 2.9-liter form), so even if the 2,660cc four were more than 100 pounds lighter, it may still have been in the neighborhood of 500 pounds. My very rough guess would be that an iron-head SBC would about split the difference and an iron big clock would be at least 70 pounds heavier up front than the BN4, but someone may have a more specific answer.

  16. Can anyone supply me with information (or direct me to information) on the twin cam cylinder head that was developed by Austin Canada for the 2660cc BN1 engine in the early 1950’s. I remember seeing an article on the subject many, many years ago. I understand 2 or 3 were built before management killed the project. Apparently, the performance was very impressive.

  17. Good article.

    Have actually driven a 3 carb Healey 3000 back in fall 1963. Followed by a TR3, then a couple of years later an old MGA, followed by innumerable MGBs. Good time to enter college and meet rich boys from Montreal whose Dad’s could afford to give them such things.

    The Healey had a very twitchy rear suspension, quarter elliptics maybe? Steered on the throttle. Seemed very fast, but 2 1/2 inches of ground clearance helped that illusion. The TR3 was an old brute that seemed to have almost no suspension at all. The MGA was actually not bad, and I found the later mid ’60s MGBs a bit sterile, probably because it had an actual torsionally strong unitbody and behaved itself. Preferred the Volvo 544.

    Then I tried the Alfa 1750 Giulietta a few years later when studying in the UK. Different and far better league altogether.

    Memories. Pretty good ones as well.

    1. The big Healeys had semi-elliptical rather than quarter-elliptical springs — it’s just that they didn’t indulge in a lot of faddish niceties like compliance or wheel travel. It’s also conceivable that the owner also delved into competition parts or aftermarket accessories; given how stiff the stock rear springs were, I suspect trying to add a rear anti-roll bar would make the car particularly twitchy.

  18. Dear Sir, could you give me some informations about the story that the original 6-cylinder Healey engine was a formel Austin Tipper engine. In that time I was working for Austin in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and later for Leyland Vehicles Benelux in Malines(Mechelen) and we have (my memories?) used spare parts for a Healey BT7 from a Austin truck engine. Because there is a Healey museum in Vreeland (The Netherlands) and they tell the visitors all about the history of (Donald)Healey and that part is missing. In that museum we have seen an AEC petrol engine (6-Cyliner), so we could accept this truck history. Please inform us, thank you in advance for your cooperation.

    1. All the big Healeys used BMC “corporate” engines, some of which were also used in trucks — the 2,660 cc big four definitely was. I’m not sufficiently familiar enough with BMC’s commercial offerings of that period to know offhand if the 2.9-liter C-series was used in trucks, although I wouldn’t be surprised. The truck and car versions of most of those engines were not dramatically different, although I presume the truck versions had some stouter components to suit more strenuous duty. It would make sense that where possible, the Healeys would have specified the heavier-duty truck components for reasons of durability. I would have to go back and do more research on the detailed engine specs to confirm that, but again it seems plausible.

      1. Dear Aaron, thank you very much for your assistance and reply in this matter. I will follow your comments and/or reply.

  19. As a matter of interest, the Riley engine used in the Healey Tickford and Abbott was indeed a twin-cam engine, but it wasn’t a twin-overhead-cam engine. The camshafts were mounted high in the block, and the pushrods were shorter than in most engines. But it was a pushrod design.

    1. Yup — a novel approach to solving the problem of how to actuate the valves with a hemispherical combustion chamber.

      1. Triumph motorcycles used the same layout on their twins and triples. Edward Turner drove a Riley around the time he designed the Speed Twin, he must have been inspired by it.

  20. I owned a Healy 300 in 1968-91 a C reg car. bought secondhand from Eddy Grimsteads at his Barking showroom in Essex. (EG’s was famous for pedal bike shops and the Lamberetta scooter ) He was a local business man. I saw the big Healey in the showroom window priced at just over £i. 000. I was driving a Triumph Vitesse at that moment, but i fell in love with the red Healey. Went in and bought it on the spot part exchanging the six cylinder Triumph for £400.00. Done the deal and drove it home in complete happiness.
    New wife wondered how i went out in a blue car and came home in a red one. After 50 years she still gets confused with my instant deals. I had to sell the car when a another baby was declared on the way. It was traded for a mortgage on a new house. So i lied with the car a distant vision of happier times. Then last week (Jan 2017) i saw an advertised 1960 BT7 fitted with a rover V8 (done in 1991) engine (not really what i wanted) but for a good working price range of what i thought was OK. Car was clean had many new parts no rust , and sounded fine. So i went into the house done the deal bought it and the seller drove it to my house.
    I was happy again. Wife loves it and loves me(so she says). Moral of the story be happy . JRL.

    1. I must say, if my spouse departed in one car and returned later in a very similar one that just happened to be a different color, I would wonder if something important had broken in my head!

  21. I am trying to research the history of a red BN2 100 M that was imported into the USA in late 1955. The card subsequently turned up in 1969, partly disassembled, in Longview Washington State, so it is probable the car was originally imported to Washington State. The car’s owner for the subsequent 44 years, Stephen Price, believes the car was raced in the 50s and early 60s. A good start would be to find the dealership that originally supplied the car; Can anyone please point me at the main dealers in Washington state? Or is there anyone out there with any record of a red 100M on the track in the relevant period within striking distance of Longview, Washington?!

    1. I’m afraid I don’t know about dealers in that area, not being from Washington, although for clarity, I updated your comment with the corrections you noted.

  22. Given a lightweight 140-180 hp 2.5-litre Twin-Cam version of the Austin-Healey 100’s 2.6 4-cylinder (“D-Series”) engine was considered for Austin-Healey’s shelved MGC-based replacement, wouldn’t the Healeys have been better off using a 6-cylinder version of the 2.5 4-cylinder Twin-Cam for the Austin-Healey 4000 instead of the Rolls-Royce engine?

    Unlike the Rolls-Royce engine (whose engine tooling was scrapped during the 4000 project), the 2.5 4-cylinder would remain in production albeit in diesel form powering the Austin FX4 Black Cab until the early-80s.

    1. “Better off” is a cumbersome value judgment in this situation. Better from a performance standpoint, probably; better from a cost and practicality standpoint, probably not. BMC management had not been wild about the twin-cam idea to begin with (particularly the Healeys’ brief suggestion of making it standard) and at the time probably didn’t expect the big four to be around in any form for half as long as it was, so developing an even more expensive spinoff would probably have been a nonstarter. The reason BMC wanted the Healeys to consider the FB60 was to better meet contractual obligations with Rolls-Royce; Donald Healey said so later, and I have to presume that the people who asked him to explore the possibility did not know that the engine would be abandoned when it was. (The levels of miscommunication involved are probably emblematic of BMC and later British Leyland.)

      The FB60 would have been an agreeable compromise from a performance standpoint, since it would have maintained the fat torque output of the C-series six with more power. For racing use a twin-cam six would probably have been superior, but for the real world, the FB60 worked quite well.

      1. That may have been the case, yet the 6-cylinder Twin-Cam would have essentially been a more potent thoroughly updated version of the 150 hp 4-litre inline-6 “D-Series” used in the Austin Princess and at one point the Jensen 541.

        Agree the FB60 would have provided more power especially in G60 Twin-Cam form, yet contractual obligations notwithstanding a Twin-Cam “D-Series” would not have been too far behind as well as cheaper compared to the Rolls-Royce unit and potentially able to be used on a version of the Austin 3-litre.

        Some claim the C-Series still had plenty of untapped potential and was even allegedly based on another unproduced inline-6 design capable of being enlarged to much as 4-litres.

        1. The ultimate problem is that BMC’s product planning strategy (if we may call it that) was a complete mess even before they started additional mergers with Jaguar and Leyland. The question a twin-cam big Healey posed (and the one Sir William Lyons asked) was, “If we also have the E-type, why exactly do we need this?” Of course, BMC’s idea of strategy (badge-engineering the MGC!) left the Healeys asking, “Er, what’s the point, exactly?”

          If the Downton conversions are any indication, the C-Series six could produce another 25 to 30 horsepower with better response than the stock engine, although I wonder if that treatment would have been able to meet U.S. emissions standards, which became a serious consideration given how dependent the Healey was on U.S. sales.

          1. Indeed the mergers with Jaguar and Leyland Motors did not help matters.

            Along with the Downtown conversions there was also a C-Series Twin-Cam proposal by Gerald Palmer (consider the B-Series Twin-Cam problems only happened after Palmer was sacked) as well as a potential redesign by Harry Weslake.

            That is not even mentioning the potential of the in-house revision managing to achieve its weight reduction and power targets, which seem to largely resemble the MGC GTS.

            There was also the fact that a 4-cylinder C-Series was considered at one point for the MGB, since BMC never really had a proper 2-litre engine until the late-1970s with the O-Series (despite BMC looking at 106 hp 2-litre B-Series or 112-115 hp 2-litre B-OHC).

          2. My assumption is that the reason the revised C-Series six didn’t meet its weight targets was the conflict between the joint objectives of “make it lighter and more compact” and “… while trying to preserve as much of the existing tooling as possible.” So, that aspect I think was probably a dead duck.

          3. If MG – The Untold Story is any indication, it was not only the Healeys but also many within BMC wanted to sort out the C-Series’s issues (including weight), only for higher ups including Issigonis refusing to even consider the idea.

            In Issigonis’s case, he probably assumed the E-Series could have potentially replaced BMC’s entire engine range and that the C-Series was thus redundant on the basis of the company throwing their lot with FWD cars.

            Which is interesting when one considers the E-Series apparent similarity to the Volkswagen EA827 unit, had the former featured another 6mm between the bore centres like the EA827 it might have made a big difference with regard to the E-Series.

  23. Where to start. I bought a clapped-out old 100 – dented aluminum center section, engine and transmission gone, ghastly bent, painted and peeling wire wheels, torn seats – a 1954 on paper. Couldn’t find an engine, but a friend had an old Chevy up in the woods, and an idea was born. We took the 283 2 barrel out of the Chevy, and I made up motor mounts from angle iron, bought a Borg-Warner T-10 4 speed, cut down a drive shaft, and off it went, hydraulic lifters and blue cloud of smoke. I notched the firewall for distributor clearance, but had to change the rear plugs from inside holes in the footwells. That turned into the start of a project that ended with a blueprinted fuelie 327 hidden under the louvered hood, Hedman headers, a complete rewiring, trunk-mounted battery, redesigned aluminum dash, and the center knockoffs cut out of the wires and welded into opened up Chevy wheels with Goodyear Bluestreak wide tires. Traction bars stopped the leaf springs from turning to pretzels, asbestos-sheet floors, wrapped exhausts, and Cobra-like side vents solved the melted sneaker problem, and the finned aluminum drums, front and back, that came on the car, were up to the braking task. STP in the cantilever shocks kept it on the ground. Overheating was a problem at first, because the Healey radiator was just too small. I had a junkyard guy build me a wide and tall radiator from a GMC truck core that I tilted forward in front of where the old radiator stood, filling it through a Corvette expansion tank tucked under the front passenger fender. I had to cut up the front and build a cobra-like nose that I built out of bent copper tubing and fiberglass, to accommodate the radiator. Heating problem solved. Remarkably, I used the original rear axle – a 3.56, I think – until I sheared the half-shafts off. I could only find a 4.12 replacement, which ruined the cruising RPMs, so I sold it. A daily driver, 20 MPG, tractable, worth the money on the bodywork and paint job that I spent. Ran like a scalded cheetah – 11 second quarters, 60 in first gear in 3 seconds, held the record at the local autocross track for years. Pulled everything out of it that wasn’t about going or stopping, for an 1800 lb joyous ride with me in it. While I worked on it, I bought an old grey parts car, and a 1955 white 100-4 with an overdrive transmission and a shift lever the length of a baseball bat, which I loved on dry days and hated on wet ones, because every puddle shorted the damned thing out from spray out of the front wheel well onto the generator. The doors always flew open going around corners until I put slide bolts on them, because the chassis was as stiff as warm pizza – but the sound of that 4-banger revving through the leafy back roads of New England in late fall with the top down, windshield raked, and tonneau flapping was a symphony – whereas the Chevy was more like an earthquake in progress. I sold them all to get the money to travel around Europe and North Africa for a year, and when I came back could never find out what happened to the Chevy-Healey, which I miss to this day.

  24. hi Aaron,

    I just bought a BT7 Tri carb 1962. I know they only produced the tri carb for one year . Does anyone know how much of these Tri Carbs were produced?
    Especially the combination of the tri carb and the centraly mounted shifter?



    1. I’m looking through my notes and it appears I either didn’t have or didn’t note down year-by-year production. I have total BT7 production as 10,825, but the three-HS4 combination was only built for 15 months of the BT7 production run. There may be a more detailed breakdown in Anders Ditlev Clausager’s Original Austin-Health 100, 100-Six and 3000 and/or Austin-Health 100, 100-6, 3000 Restoration Guide by Gary Anderson and Roger Moment, but I don’t have those handy — I’d have to request them from the library again, as I don’t own either.

      1. I have a 1965 bj8
        That has a tag attached to the serial number plate that says BMC-66 .
        Does anyone know what this is?

  25. Cars that were shipped from the factory to California had that tag attached. Apparently, California law at the time required that the manufacturer and “year of manufacture” be identified somewhere on the car. Since the BMC VIN did not have a code for that information, the tags were made up and attached. It isn’t known to me exactly where the tags were attached — BMC? The dealer?
    Another quirk of California was that it added a two-digit “year” to the front of the factory VIN on paperwork. This has caused problems later for people who bought an ex-California car and tried to get it registered elsewhere, since the VIN on the firewall tag and the VIN on the paperwork were not identical.

    1. Perhaps the tags were attached by the distributor prior to shipment to the dealers? That would probably have made the most logistical sense, although of course that’s no reason to assume it was done that way.

      It’s easy to understand why some local laws would require such identification, since in that era it was not uncommon for manufacturers to assign new serial numbers to unsold cars at the end of a model year. Buyers and insurers did have an obvious interest in knowing whether, say, a 1955 car was actually built in 1953! However, as you point out, inconsistent application didn’t make things easy for later owners.

      Any examination of factory VIN strategies of the ’50s and ’60s makes a strong argument that standardized VIN requirements were badly overdue. Even for a given manufacturer, VIN formats sometimes varied from year to year in confounding ways, and there was no guarantee that the information presented by a VIN would be useful to anyone but the factory (and then only during manufacture).

    2. Steve, I always wondered what that tag meant. My 66 was known to be from California and owned by a Joel Buttons of Riverside, CA. I have the registrations (somewhere) for all of the years he owned it until I bought it in 1995. He seemed to move some as it was also registered in Hemet, CA a couple times. Had 28,000 miles on it when I bought it and now has about 52,000. When my body and paint man repainted the chassis he said it was the best one he had ever seen, (now over 135 Healeys rebuilt) no welding done except the strengthening on the rear A arms section.

  26. Would anyone have a listing of A.H. dealers/distributors for the USA in the 1965/67 period?

    1. A quick web search found a copy of a brochure entitled “Distributors and Dealers in North America for Products of the British Motor Corporation Ltd.,” dated Spring 1967; I found a copy of it at mk1-performance-conversions.co.uk, a website about early Mini conversions. That lists dealers rather than distribution organizations, but I found an interesting starting point for the latter in the form of a 1960 federal court judgment in an antitrust lawsuit filed by the Southern District of New York, which apparently involved allegations of price fixing. (The 12 named defendants in that suit may not have been all U.S. BMC distributors, but they included some of the biggest.)

      1. Aaron, thank you – that is so helpful – I have been punching around with Google searches with very little luck! I have just acquired an A-H 3000 that came from USA and I am playing with finding out its history – this is proving difficult as the Heritage Cert only states ‘USA Export’ with no further detail. As they made over 17000 of them I have a long search in front of me…..
        Once again, many thanks,

        1. If you didn’t see it already, I would draw your attention to the above comment thread about the model year plates added to California cars for compliance with state law, which might help to indicate whether the car was originally sold in California. That might not narrow it down much (I would imagine California accounted for a substantial percentage of U.S. Austin-Healey sales, and that dealer brochure lists 64 California dealerships that sold BMC cars), but it would be a start!

  27. There are no tags, just the standard VIN plate and luckily, the original engine. maybe the restorer removed the tags…. It is more likely the car was sold elsewhere in the ‘States. Judging from the extensively corroded elements pre-restoration and the fact that a new chassis was required, it may have lived in a northern area….

    Does anyone keep a register of Austin-Healey’s sold in USA?

    Great information – thanks everyone.

    1. At a glance, it appears there may be several registries, including the Austin-Healey Club of America, the Austin-Healey Concours Registry, and one run by the Austin-Healey Experience. I don’t know anything about any of them beyond what I found from a quick web search, but those seem like three worthwhile places to start.

  28. A. C. Sampietro also designed the SOHC cylinder head for the Willys “Tornado” engine.

  29. The 100 BN1 I have was purchased way back in 1976 with a 2.5 litre Riley engine and gearbox. The car’s Batch and Body number suggested a build around Sept’54 at the time when the 100S modifications were commencing. After recently contacting the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust and British Motor Museum, I was informed they had no Healey 100 record of my car, which is complete in most other regards as an original 1954 AH.

    Noting some of the negative provided regarding the standard BN1 95bhp engine power and awkward gearbox, I have found my “Realey” to be a superior car and wondered if it might have been as a result of some Owner request of DH using spare Riley parts around his Warwick factory. No record of Realey having had a later engine gearbox transplant can be found either.

    1. (I accidentally deleted your comment on Sunday while clearing out spam comments, but I was able to restore it from backup once I realized it had been deleted. Sorry about that!)

  30. No worries Aaron. I was so impressed with the knowledge and expertise of the respondents, I was hoping someone might be able to assist me with my current Covid Realey restoration project towards some form of originality. All are amazed at how well the Riley motor and gearbox have been assembled into the BN1 chassis and body, as if it was all done at the same time in late 1954, with all the variation parts of the same 1954 vintage?

    1. I’m afraid I have no idea. The simplest explanation when it comes to peculiar automotive variations is usually that a previous owner did it or had it done after purchase, for reasons that may now be lost to time; if something terribly odd looks original, it might just mean that it was done with more-than-usual care and/or ready access to otherwise original parts. Of course, the simplest answer isn’t necessarily the correct one, but if there are no factory records of the car being built on the line, you might never know for sure unless you happen to encounter a previous owner who can provide a plausible explanation.

  31. This article was much appreciated!…I am now 75yo, but back in 1968. I bought a 1959 100-6, off a local used car lot, for $1100 dollars…I was a thrilling vehicle, and popular with the ladies I dated…after a year, I was about to join the US Navy, and could not see any need for the car..I sold it for $900 dollars. to a ditzy airline stewardess. A few months later, I received a postcard from her–she had run over a large rock, and continued to drive until the engine seized, from lack of oil!…Oh well…the one flaw of that car was that it was just too low-slung…not much ground clearance, and that situation led to it’s death.

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